Next Article in Journal
A Credit Scoring Model for SMEs Based on Accounting Ethics
Next Article in Special Issue
Use of Household Survey Data as a Tool to Assess the Carbon Footprint of Rural Tourist Accommodation and Related Services in China: A Case Study of Mount Qingcheng
Previous Article in Journal
Mapping Entrepreneurs’ Orientation towards Sustainability in Interaction versus Network Marketing Practices
Previous Article in Special Issue
Impact of Climate Change on Tourism on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Research Based on a Literature Review
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1587;

Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the EU, US, China, and India up to 2060 in Comparison with Their Pledges under the Paris Agreement

1,* and 1,2
Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [637 KB, uploaded 7 September 2017]   |  


A greenhouse gas (GHG) emission model was developed based on economic and energy sector development at the national level. Different development scenarios were established, including BAU (scenario with business as usual) and API (scenario with additional policy interventions). We simulated annual GHG emissions under different scenarios for the EU, US, China, and India from 2016 to 2060, and evaluated the impacts of emission changes on their mitigation pledges (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, INDCs). Two main conclusions were obtained. (1) In API, EU’s emissions fell from 4160 to 2340 MtCO2e/year and would probably achieve its INDC pledge. Though US’s emissions fell from 6330 to 4020 MtCO2e/year, it still had a deficit of 370 MtCO2e in 2025. If the Clean Power Plan (CPP) is abandoned, US’s emissions would remain above 6000 MtCO2e/year. (2) In BAU, China’s emissions peaked in 2044 while India’s emissions were already close to the strict INDC target. In API, China and India both achieved a reduction of about 2000 MtCO2e exceeding their INDC targets in 2030. Chinese emissions peaked in 2030, but Indian emissions grew until 2060. This study also indicates that developed countries should play a more important role in future mitigation efforts. View Full-Text
Keywords: GHG emission; low-carbon planning; energy structure; INDCs GHG emission; low-carbon planning; energy structure; INDCs

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Wang, F.; Zheng, J. Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the EU, US, China, and India up to 2060 in Comparison with Their Pledges under the Paris Agreement. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1587.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top