Next Article in Journal
Oxidative Status and Presence of Bioactive Compounds in Meat from Chickens Fed Polyphenols Extracted from Olive Oil Industry Waste
Next Article in Special Issue
Understanding User Satisfaction Evaluation in Low Occupancy Sustainable Workplaces
Previous Article in Journal
Managing the ‘Monitoring Imperative’ in the Context of SDG Target 6.3 on Water Quality and Wastewater
Previous Article in Special Issue
Routines, Rigidity and Real Estate: Organisational Innovations in the Workplace
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1565;

A Multi-Stakeholder Delphi Study to Determine Key Space Management Components for Elderly Facilities in China

School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
School of Building Construction, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
College of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, Nanjing 210016, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Post Occupancy Evaluation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1181 KB, uploaded 5 September 2017]   |  


The elderly population in China is increasing rapidly. To meet elderly residents’ housing demand, Chinese government makes great efforts to build more elderly facilities. However, major challenges in the operation of these elderly facilities, such as low space utilization rate, poor accessibility, poor environment and so on, have being emerging. The critical reason for challenges can be concluded as the lack of effective space management components. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to explore key space management components for China’s elderly facilities. Considering stakeholders’ (facility owner, facility manager, care staff, elderly residents, and academic researchers) viewpoints on space management, this study used a multi-stakeholder Delphi approach to determine key space management components through five steps. Based on the selection criteria, a total of 25 Delphi panellists with five stakeholder groups were invited and finally 23 Delphi panellists participated in the whole study process. Subsequently, the academic researchers among these panellists were employed to quantify the stakeholders’ influence with the parameter of stakeholder influencing factor. After that, the initial discussion on space management was performed to generate the initial list involving 11 space management components. Next, two ranking rounds were conducted to conclude the final significance scores of each space management component from five stakeholder groups’ feedbacks. With respect to the final ranking score and the values of influencing stakeholder factor, the decision score of each space management components was calculated, which integrated all stakeholder groups’ opinions. Finally, through two cut-off points, a total of seven components were selected as the key space management components for China’s elderly facilities including space planning and assignment, space utilization audit, space occupancy cost audit, space inventory management, space usability management, space change management, and the management of health safety and environment. These components will assist facility managers to conduct effective and sustainable space management practice for supporting organizational core business. View Full-Text
Keywords: space management components; stakeholder; Delphi; post occupancy evaluation; elderly facilities; China space management components; stakeholder; Delphi; post occupancy evaluation; elderly facilities; China

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, L.; Yuan, J.; Roper, K.O.; Zhou, Z. A Multi-Stakeholder Delphi Study to Determine Key Space Management Components for Elderly Facilities in China. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1565.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top