Next Article in Journal
Tapping the Potential of Neglected and Underutilized Food Crops for Sustainable Nutrition Security in the Mountains of Pakistan and Nepal
Previous Article in Journal
Emission Control in River Network System of the Taihu Basin for Water Quality Assurance of Water Environmentally Sensitive Areas
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 292;

Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction in the Operation Stage of Cross Laminated Timber Residential Buildings in China

School of Architecture, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Umberto Berardi
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [4458 KB, uploaded 17 February 2017]   |  


This paper focused on energy consumption and carbon emission for heating and cooling during a building’s operation stage, and examined the energy effects of using Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) as an alternative building material to reinforced concrete (RC) in China’s 31 key cities located in different climate zones. The authors designed two seven-story residential buildings, which were constructed with RC framed and CLT systems, separately. This was followed by simulating the energy consumption using commercialized software IESTM under the different climate zones and calculating the carbon emissions. Comparisons were made between RC and CLT systems buildings on the basis of simulation data. The results show that the estimated energy consumption and carbon emission in CLT buildings are much lower than that of RC buildings in all studied cities, which indicates that CLT systems have good potential in reducing carbon emission and saving energy consumption compared to RC. The energy consumptions and carbon emissions in both concrete and CLT buildings are closely related to the climate zones. Buildings in Severe Cold and Cold Regions consumed the most energy and released more carbon. At the national level, the estimated energy consumption at the operation stage, in the studied building with RC frames and CLT system was approximately 465.1 MJ/m2 and 332.6 MJ/m2 per annum, respectively. Despite vast differences in China’s climate zones, the effects of energy saving and carbon reduction potentials of CLT buildings show little relationship to the climate zone. CLT buildings may result in a weighted 29.4% energy saving, which equals 24.6% carbon reductions, compared with RC buildings at the operation stage at national level, although it may vary in different climate zones. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon reduction; energy saving; Cross Laminated Timber (CLT); residential building carbon reduction; energy saving; Cross Laminated Timber (CLT); residential building

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, H.; Liu, Y.; Chang, W.-S.; Shao, Y.; Sun, C. Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction in the Operation Stage of Cross Laminated Timber Residential Buildings in China. Sustainability 2017, 9, 292.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top