- freely available
Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 286; doi:10.3390/su9020286
- Valorization of the landfill gas of Gò Cát landfill;
- Valorization of materials from Gò Cát landfill body after landfill mining;
- Valorization of energy produced from Gò Cát landfill body after landfill mining;
- Land recycling and valorization of the land after deconstruction of Gò Cát landfill; and
- Valorization of Gò Cát landfill surface through a biomass utilization plant in case the landfill remains.
2. Materials and Methods
- Analysis of the WM system in HCMC through the DPSIR framework in order to get insights in drivers and pressures in a holistic way;
- Waste flow analysis on the HCMC level, through an on-site data collection in collaboration with the operator CITENCO;
- Investigation of the waste composition 8 years after closure of Gò Cát landfill including heating value determination of the waste according to DIN 51900;
- Data collection on the metabolism of HCMC metropolitan area and the ecological footprint;
- Variant assessment on valorization potential of the Gò Cát landfill site with the scope to create financial benefit in order to improve the WM system in HCMC;
- Impact assessment for the environmental factors at Gò Cát landfill and risk assessment on the long term; and
- SWOT analysis of the existing situation in order to evaluate existing strengths and future opportunities.
3.1. Analysis of the WM System in HCMC through the DPSIR Framework
3.2. Variant Assessment for the Reutilization of Gò Cát Landfill Site as Small Scale Sample for Material and Land Recycling
3.2.1. Valorization of Landfill Gas from the Existing Landfill Body
3.2.2. Assessment of the Feasibility of Enhanced Landfill Mining
- Organic wastes formed the highest percentage (81.4%), represented by food waste (70.8%), by textiles (1.8%), wood (1.2%), yard garbage (1.2%), rubber (0.4%), and leather (0.3%).
- Plastic formed the second highest proportion (16.0%). Among the plastic materials, the fractions were nylon (13.8%), foam boxes (0.7%), multi-component plastic (0.2%) and plastic bottles (PET).
- Paper was included with an average proportion of 1.0%, caused by household paper and magazine printing paper (0.6%) as well as cardboard and corrugated cardboard (0.4%).
- CDW formed a very small proportion such as ferrous metals (0.2%), non-ferrous metals (0.02%), glass (0.3%), and potential hazardous other wastes (0.1%).
3.2.3. Assessment of the Feasibility of the Biomass Use at the Capped Gò Cát Landfill Site
- Professional landfill capping, cultivation of energy crops on the landfill cover and utilization of the biomass together with other organic matter, e.g., biodegradable waste (food leftovers), agricultural and industrial residues.
- Installation and operation of a biomass converter for the generation of biogas. The produced biogas would be used to generate energy in a Combined Heat and Power plant (CHP).
Conflicts of Interest
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|Characteristics||Dong Thanh||Gò Cát||Phuoc Hiep||Da Phuoc|
|Operation period||1991–2002||2000–2007||Phuoc Hiep I 2003–2006||since 2007|
|Phuoc Hiep 1A 2007–2008|
|Phuoc Hiep II since 2008|
|Phuoc Hiep III 2013–2014|
|Surface||43.5 ha||25 ha||45 ha (I + IA), 99 ha (II) *, 7.2 ha (III)||128 ha **|
|Disposal volume (designed)||3.2 mil tons||5.8 mil tons||Phuoc Hiep I 9.2 mil tons||10.8 mil tons|
|Phuoc Hiep 1A 1.7 mil tons|
|Phuoc Hiep II 18 mil tons|
|Phuoc Hiep III 4.4 mil tons|
|Distance to HCMC||25 km||18 km||48 km||24 km|
|Component||Gò Cát Landfill in 2003 ||Phuoc Hiep Landfill in 2007  *||Transfer Station in 2009 ||Phuoc Hiep Landfill in 2014 |
|Plastics and nylon||16.03||30.40||5.70||16.1–17.3|
|Dirt, ash, etc.||1.1||1.2||0.99|
|Location of Waste Collection||Monthly Fee|
|Households in the City||Type of Waste Collection||Vietnamese Dong (VND)||US$|
|Suburban area||Front Line||15,000||0.67|
|Type of Waste Generating Institution||Monthly Fee|
|Other Customer Group||Type of Business||Vietnamese Dong (VND)||US$|
|Type 1: |
Generated waste volume <250 kg/month
|Type 2: |
Generated waste volume >250 kg/month and >420 kg/month
|Type 3: |
Generated waste volume >1 m3/month or >420 kg/month
|Year||Population||GDP Per Capita in HCMC in US$||Waste Generation HCMC (kg/Capita/Day)||Ecological Footprint in Vietnam (GHA/Capita/Year)|
|Year||Recovered Gas Volume (m3)|
|Lower Heating Value (LHV)|
|Landfill Cell Number||Heating Value (MJ/kg)||Average Heating Value (MJ/kg)|
|• Energy utilization potential:|
The waste body of Gò Cát landfill does have a certain waste-to-energy potential, even if it does not justify the deconstruction of the landfill body in monetary terms as such. Partially the incinerated material would need backfilling. This could be done at the landfill Phuoc Hiep which is still in operation.
• Land recycling potential:
The location of Gò Cát landfill has a large land recycling potential as the megacity needs space for its further growth.
• Biomass utilization potential:
Gò Cát landfill has a long term biomass utilization potential, which could be unlocked through energy crop cultivation on the capped landfill.
• Authority supervision of HCMC landfills:
Generally, environmental supervision of the monitoring of the landfill sites in operation is done by the authorities. Closed landfill sites are monitored under supervision of the authorities.
|• Material utilization potential:|
The waste body of Gò Cát landfill does not contain a large potential for a material use in the sense of the European waste management hierarchy.
• Landfill gas utilization potential:
The landfill gas potential of Gò Cát is exhausted due to decomposition of the biodegradable waste proportion and the blocked gas collection system.
• Landfills situation:
HCMC landfill sites are not maintained state-of-the-art, both operating and closed sites. At the closed sites, the landfill capping is not applied properly, the leachate collection system works only temporarily, both causing emissions. At the operating sites are problems with air emissions.
• Handling of hazardous waste:
Hazardous waste is often dumped with MSW. About 90% of industrial hazardous waste in HCMC is untreated and often burned. Hazardous waste could appear when the landfill is deconstructed.
|• Monetary valorization|
All discussed re-use options are technically feasible and contain a monetary valorization potential. The largest margin could be achieved through landfill deconstruction with subsequent land recycling. The use of recycled land would reduce the land consumption.
• Pilot project
Gò Cát landfill could become a pilot project for: (a) landfill deconstruction with subsequent land recycling; or (b) after-use through energy crop cultivation and utilization in a biogas plant. With this kind of attention Gò Cát landfill could have a lighthouse function for Vietnam, as well as for capacity building of environmental awareness and environmental qualification (teaching).
There are already interested investors to obtain the recycled land.
|• Insufficient Landfill Capacity|
The high economic growth and progressive urbanization mean waste continues to rise. There is a risk that the development of the National Strategy for integrated waste management cannot keep up with the rapid social and economic changes.
In the authorities might lack the will and/or options against state-owned enterprises and foreign investors to enforce the existing laws.
There is a financial risk for the investors as the subsoil situation of Gò Cát landfill is not yet investigated. Even Gò Cát landfill was built with a basic sealing according to international standards, there could appear polluted soil below the landfill location which must be decontaminated.
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