2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Context Area
2.2. Research Implementation
2.3. Data Collection
2.4. Data Interpretation
- Any event between 7 p.m. and 6 a.m., when the treatment plants are not open for discharge.
- Any events longer than three hours, which were considered as waiting time.
- Any events recorded at the treatment plant that were considered as discharge of faecal sludge or waiting time.
2.5. Data Analyses
- GIS analyses of the spatial distribution of emptying events inside the boundaries of Kampala and the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area, and outside the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area.
- GIS analyses of service coverage in low-income informal settlements with KCCA statistics . A 100 m buffer was added to the perimeter of the designated boundaries of informal settlements to account for their informal nature, which means they do not have precise boundaries and are difficult to map, show an uncontrolled sprawl, and experience rapid growth .
- Identification of high-frequency emptying services. Locations with more than six recorded emptying events during the research period (i.e., more than two emptying events per month) where defined as such, indicating a non-household origin of faecal sludge.
- Identification of areas without service provision during the study period. For analysis, a 0.5 × 0.5 km grid that divides the area of Kampala into 809 cells, each of 0.25 km2, was projected over the city map. A cell was defined as an area without service provision if no emptying event took place during the three month research period. This grid was, furthermore, applied to classify these areas into areas with and without residents.
- To analyse the scale of service provision on the parish level, the emptying frequency was calculated (Equation 1). Population and area are based on data obtained from Fichtner Water and Transportation .
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Overview of Service Providers
3.2. Scale of Operation
3.2.1. Spatial Distribution of Emptying Events
3.2.2. Service Coverage in Low-Income Informal Settlements
3.2.3. High-Frequency Non-Household Emptying Services
3.2.4. Areas without Service Provision
3.2.5. Influence of Population Density on Frequency of Emptying
- Low frequency: Emptying events > 0 < 50/1000 cap × ha
- Medium frequency: Emptying events ≥ 50 < 200/1000 cap × ha
- High frequency: Emptying events ≥ 200 < 500/1000 cap × ha
- Very high frequency: Emptying events ≥ 500/1000 cap × ha
3.3. Optimisation of Faecal Sludge Logistics
- Access to sanitation: Identifying areas that lack adequate access to sanitation for priority intervention by local municipalities to increase equity of service coverage.
- Underserved areas: Identifying areas where manual or mechanical private entrepreneurs could profitably increase service provision, and increase access to faecal sludge management.
- Future demand: Identifying areas with rapidly growing and high population densities with a need for increased service provision.
- Identify service areas: Locating areas outside of the municipal boundaries, which are being served by treatment plants within boundaries.
- Optimise locations: Siting of treatment plants and transfer stations to optimise transport distances could greatly reduce transport costs and impacts to traffic.
- Quantification and characterisation: Identifying sources of faecal sludge, which could be combined with other tools to increase accuracy of quantification and characterisation for appropriate design.
- Existing infrastructure: Optimising usage of existing infrastructure.
Conflicts of Interest
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