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Emergy Perspectives on the Environmental Performance and Sustainability of Small-Scale Gold Production Systems in Ghana

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
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Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2034; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112034
Received: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
Small-scale gold mining is an important component of the Ghanaian economy but it has also caused enormous damage to local ecosystems. In this paper, an emergy analysis was conducted in Ghana to assess the environmental performance and the relative sustainability of two artisanal and small-scale gold production systems: alluvial “dig and wash” and underground “ghetto” mines. Results show that both production systems have high environmental impacts, as indicated by an environmental loading ratio (ELR) of 4.31 and environmental sustainability index (ESI) of 0.33 for the alluvial system and 2.53 and 0.52 for the underground system, respectively. Concerning the international trade balance, the emergy exchange ratios of the two systems are both lower than one, at, 0.23 and 0.33 for the alluvial and underground systems, respectively, indicating a significant amount of resource loss to foreign regions. This study could assist in the regulation of the small-scale mining sector bearing in mind the unsustainable nature of their activities. In addition, supporting miners to consider land rehabilitation ethics is urgently needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM); emergy analysis; environmental sustainability; Ghana artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM); emergy analysis; environmental sustainability; Ghana
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MDPI and ACS Style

Asamoah, E.F.; Zhang, L.; Liang, S.; Pang, M.; Tang, S. Emergy Perspectives on the Environmental Performance and Sustainability of Small-Scale Gold Production Systems in Ghana. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2034. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112034

AMA Style

Asamoah EF, Zhang L, Liang S, Pang M, Tang S. Emergy Perspectives on the Environmental Performance and Sustainability of Small-Scale Gold Production Systems in Ghana. Sustainability. 2017; 9(11):2034. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112034

Chicago/Turabian Style

Asamoah, Ernest F.; Zhang, Lixiao; Liang, Sai; Pang, Mingyue; Tang, Shoujuan. 2017. "Emergy Perspectives on the Environmental Performance and Sustainability of Small-Scale Gold Production Systems in Ghana" Sustainability 9, no. 11: 2034. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112034

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