Next Article in Journal
Residential Spatial Differentiation Based on Urban Housing Types—An Empirical Study of Xiamen Island, China
Previous Article in Journal
The Environmental Mitigation Potential of Photovoltaic-Powered Irrigation in the Production of South African Maize
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Built Environment, Travel Attitudes and Travel Behaviour: Quasi-Longitudinal Analysis of Links in the Case of Greeks Relocating from US to Greece

Department of Transport and Planning, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
Chair of Transportation Systems Engineering, Faculty of Civil, Geo and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Munich, D-80333 Munich, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Transportation Research Board 2015 Annual Meeting.
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1774;
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 24 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
PDF [1018 KB, uploaded 30 September 2017]


In this study, the possible causal links between the built environment, travel attitudes and travel behaviour of people that have moved between totally different urban and transportation contexts were investigated. A quasi-longitudinal design was developed to collect data about the perceived neighbourhood characteristics, neighbourhood preferences, travel attitudes and changes in car, walking and bicycle usage of 51 Greeks who relocated from the US to Greece. Variable reduction techniques were applied prior to developing our models because of the small sample size. The results of this study offer support for a causal relationship between the built environment and travel behaviour identified in the existing literature. For instance, longer travel time to city center was associated with higher car use, higher density neighbourhoods and increased accessibility to local amenities were associated with increased bike use and better access to a district shopping center was associated with more walking after relocation. Our results also showed that in contexts like Greece, where transport infrastructures are not adequately developed, lack of safe bike conditions and easy access to public transportation are important determinants of bicycle use and walking. Thus, according to our results, promoting sustainable mobility in contexts like Greece would require not only enhancing accessibility through relocation of activities, but also by improving infrastructures for public transport, bicycle and walking. View Full-Text
Keywords: built environment; travel behaviour; self-selection; relocation; Greece; USA built environment; travel behaviour; self-selection; relocation; Greece; USA

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Milakis, D.; Efthymiou, D.; Antoniou, C. Built Environment, Travel Attitudes and Travel Behaviour: Quasi-Longitudinal Analysis of Links in the Case of Greeks Relocating from US to Greece. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1774.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top