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Concepts and Strategies of Organic Plant Breeding in Light of Novel Breeding Techniques

1
Louis Bolk Institute, Hoofdstraat 24, 3972 LA Driebergen, The Netherlands
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Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Department of Crop Sciences, Ackerstrasse 113, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland
3
Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen UR Plant Breeding, P.O. Box 386, 6700 AJ Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gerhart U. Ryffel
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010018
Received: 10 September 2016 / Revised: 18 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 23 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Farming and Gene Manipulation)
In this paper, we describe the development of a set of guiding principles for the evaluation of breeding techniques by the organic sector over time. The worldwide standards of organic agriculture (OA) do not allow genetic engineering (GE) or any products derived from genetic engineering. The standards in OA are an expression of the underlying principles of health, ecology, fairness and care. The derived norms are process and not product oriented. As breeding is considered part of the process in agriculture, GE is not a neutral tool for the organic sector. The incompatibility between OA and GE is analyzed, including the “novel breeding techniques”. Instead, alternative breeding approaches are pursued based on the norms and values of organic agriculture not only on the technical level but also on the social and organizational level by including other value chain players and consumers. The status and future perspectives of the alternative directions for organic breeding are described and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: organic farming; plant breeding; guiding principles; alternative techniques; future perspectives organic farming; plant breeding; guiding principles; alternative techniques; future perspectives
MDPI and ACS Style

Nuijten, E.; Messmer, M.M.; Lammerts van Bueren, E.T. Concepts and Strategies of Organic Plant Breeding in Light of Novel Breeding Techniques. Sustainability 2017, 9, 18. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010018

AMA Style

Nuijten E, Messmer MM, Lammerts van Bueren ET. Concepts and Strategies of Organic Plant Breeding in Light of Novel Breeding Techniques. Sustainability. 2017; 9(1):18. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010018

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nuijten, Edwin, Monika M. Messmer, and Edith T. Lammerts van Bueren 2017. "Concepts and Strategies of Organic Plant Breeding in Light of Novel Breeding Techniques" Sustainability 9, no. 1: 18. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010018

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