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Resilience of Infrastructure Systems to Sea-Level Rise in Coastal Areas: Impacts, Adaptation Measures, and Implementation Challenges

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Infrastructure System-of-Systems Group, Environnemental Engineering Student, Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro 20081, Brazil
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Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tan Yigitcanlar
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111115
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 13 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
Expansive areas of low elevation in many densely populated coastal areas are at elevated risk of storm surges and flooding due to torrential precipitation, as a result of sea level rise. These phenomena could have catastrophic impacts on coastal communities and result in the destruction of critical infrastructure, disruption of economic activities and salt water contamination of the water supply. The objective of the study presented in this paper was to identify various impacts of sea level rise on civil infrastructures in coastal areas and examine the adaptation measures suggested in the existing literature. To this end, a systemic review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify a repository of studies addressing sea level rise impacts and adaptation measures in the context of infrastructure systems. The study focused on three infrastructure sectors: water and wastewater, energy, and road transportation. The collected information was then analyzed in order to identify different categories of sea level rise impacts and corresponding adaptation measures. The findings of the study are threefold: (1) the major categories of sea level rise impacts on different infrastructure systems; (2) measures for protection, accommodation, and retreat in response to sea level rise impacts; and (3) challenges related to implementing adaptation measures. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea level rise; infrastructure systems; coastal areas; impacts; adaptation measures; implementation challenges; energy; water and wastewater; transportation sea level rise; infrastructure systems; coastal areas; impacts; adaptation measures; implementation challenges; energy; water and wastewater; transportation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Azevedo de Almeida, B.; Mostafavi, A. Resilience of Infrastructure Systems to Sea-Level Rise in Coastal Areas: Impacts, Adaptation Measures, and Implementation Challenges. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1115.

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