2. Materials and Methods
2.1. The Case Study
- laying of an absorbing barrier and diesel recovery from the soil near the roadway;
- capping in polyethylene to preserve the contaminated area from meteoric events;
- removal of the most contaminated soil and its temporary storage in a waste storage area;
- the dedicated area.
The Contaminated Site
2.2. Sampling and Analysis
- evaluating the state and the extent of contamination in soil and groundwater (perimeter of the contaminated area);
- collecting data on geo-morphology and groundwater;
- defining the contamination level and the law limit concentrations;
- determining the efficacy of the remediation technologies of groundwater and soil.
- hand soil sampling was realized at a depth varying in the range −0.3 ÷ −2.4 m; suitable protocols was adopted to avoid any contamination and preserve the samples such as use of latex gloves, replaced at each sampling point, and metal scoop, decontaminated at each sampling point; the sample sieving was realized with a sieve with a 2 cm mesh; soil samples were packed in glass jars tightly sealed and stored at a temperature of 4 °C; transport of samples to a certified laboratory was carried out in insulated refrigerated bags;
- micro-drilling at 5.50 m from the ground level by a direct-push portable equipment and a 30 mm diameter core barrel, equipped with internal sample tube holder;
- survey based on seven internal perforations, plus an external one as a blank, realized with a rotary drilling technique with no fluids circulation, by using a 101 mm diameter core barrel and a 127 mm diameter cover tube;
- determination of the phreatic level in 15 piezometers, with a maximum depth of 9 m from the ground surface;
- in order to verify a possible plume migration water samples were taken in wells.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Hydrocarbons in Groundwater
3.2. Hydrocarbons in Soil and Remediation Treatment
3.2.1. The Phase of the “Emergency” and “Safety” Operation
3.2.2. The Second Phase of Remediation Treatment
Conflicts of Interest
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|Day||Sampling Site||Depth below |
|Hydrocarbons||Total Nitrogen||Total Phosphorus||Potassium|
C ≤ 12
C > 12
|186||S8||−1.00 ÷ −2.00||5.5||66||-||-||-|
|−2.00 ÷ −3.00||216||1490||-||-||-|
|−3.00 ÷ −4.00||366||2460||0.0100||94.7||214|
|S9||−1.00 ÷ −2.00||n.r.||11,6||-||-||-|
|−2.00 ÷ −3.00||188||1750||-||-||-|
|−3.00 ÷ −4.00||314||2350||0.0100||80.8||203|
|187||S10||−1.00 ÷ −2.00||188||1460||-||-||-|
|−2.00 ÷ −3.00||320||2900||-||-||-|
|−3.00 ÷ −4.00||197||1840||0.0100||86.3||213|
|S11||−1.00 ÷ −2.00||n.r.||n.r.||-||-||-|
|−2.00 ÷ −3.00||18.5||290||-||-||-|
|−3.00 ÷ −4.00||16.5||400||0.0100||65.7||194|
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