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Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 3900-3918;

Dual-Level Material and Psychological Assessment of Urban Water Security in a Water-Stressed Coastal City

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities, University of Regina, Regina Saskatchewan, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Xiangzheng Deng, Ram Babu Singh and Marc A. Rosen
Received: 30 November 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 26 March 2015 / Published: 2 April 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [925 KB, uploaded 7 April 2015]   |  


The acceleration of urbanization and industrialization has been gradually aggravating water security issues, such as water shortages, water pollution, and flooding or drought disasters and so on. Water security issues have become a great challenge to urban sustainable development. In this context, we proposed a dual-level material and psychological assessment method to assess urban water security. Psychological security coefficients were introduced in this method to combine material security and residents’ security feelings. A typical water-stressed coastal city in China (Dalian) was chosen as a case study. The water security status of Dalian from 2010 to 2012 was analysed dynamically. The results indicated that the Dalian water security statuses from 2010 to 2012 were basically secure, but solutions to improve water security status and solve water resource problems are still required. This dual-level material and psychological assessment for urban water security has improved conventional material assessment through the introduction of psychological security coefficients, which can benefit decision-making for urban water planning, management and protection. View Full-Text
Keywords: water security; psychological security; questionnaire; coastal city; Dalian water security; psychological security; questionnaire; coastal city; Dalian

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Huang, Y.; Xu, L.; Yin, H.; YanpengCai; ZhifengYang. Dual-Level Material and Psychological Assessment of Urban Water Security in a Water-Stressed Coastal City. Sustainability 2015, 7, 3900-3918.

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