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Sustainability 2015, 7(2), 1503-1515;

Facilities Design Based on Apparent Motion of Grating for Speed Reduction in Tunnel

School of Transportation, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 23 September 2014 / Revised: 18 December 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2015 / Published: 30 January 2015
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This paper introduces the concept of apparent motion, and by examining the characteristics of apparent motion and of velocity vectors, puts forward a new speed reduction method in tunnels. Finally, we verify this effect through a simulation experiment. The experiment first used 3DMAX to make simulation videos with apparent motion grating installed on the tunnel wall, and then took the “stable same, direction movement” proportion of perception responses as the index to determine the optimal form of apparent motion. Using the observations of six males and two females, the experiments show that, with a space layout of two bright, two dark or four bright, four dark, a stimulus separation (SS) of 2 or 4 m, and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 60, 120, 180 or 240 ms, participants tended to perceive apparent motion as “stable same, direction movement”. Based on the above, 16 combinations of grating were adopted as optimal forms. By using the Forced-Choice Method, the experiments showed that the best parameters of apparent motion grating for speed reduction are: two bright, two dark, SS as 4 m and SOA as 60 ms. Under these conditions, the average perceived speed of eight observers reaches the maximum; meanwhile, the standard deviation is lower than that of the four dark, four bright case. View Full-Text
Keywords: tunnel; apparent motion; speed perception; speed reduction; edge rate tunnel; apparent motion; speed perception; speed reduction; edge rate

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, B.; Zhu, S.; Wang, H.; Xia, J. Facilities Design Based on Apparent Motion of Grating for Speed Reduction in Tunnel. Sustainability 2015, 7, 1503-1515.

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