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Sustainability 2014, 6(7), 4273-4286;

GM Crops, Organic Agriculture and Breeding for Sustainability

The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box 114/5055, Beirut 1108-2010, Lebanon
Received: 29 March 2014 / Revised: 1 July 2014 / Accepted: 2 July 2014 / Published: 9 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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The ongoing debate about the use of genetically-modified (GM) crops in agriculture has largely focused on food safety and genetic contamination issues. Given that the majority of GM crops have been produced to respond to the problem of crop yield reductions caused by diseases, insects and weeds, the paper argues that in those cases, the currently used GM crops are an unstable solution to the problem, because they represent such a strong selection pressure, that pests rapidly evolve resistance. Organic agriculture practices provide a more sustainable way of producing healthy food; however, the lower yields often associated with those practices, making the resultant healthy food more expensive, open the criticism that such practices will not be able to feed human populations. Evolutionary plant breeding offers the possibility of using the evolutionary potential of crops to our advantage by producing a continuous flow of varieties better adapted to organic systems, to climate change and to the ever changing spectrum of pests, without depending on chemical control. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic engineering; organic agriculture; evolutionary plant breeding; sustainability genetic engineering; organic agriculture; evolutionary plant breeding; sustainability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Ceccarelli, S. GM Crops, Organic Agriculture and Breeding for Sustainability. Sustainability 2014, 6, 4273-4286.

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