A Tool to Evaluate Different Renovation Alternatives with Regard to Sustainability
2. Current Decision-Making Methods
3. Suggested Decision Support Methodology
3.1. Environmental Aspects
3.1.1. Overview of the LCA Tool
3.1.2. Outcome of the LCA Tool Calculations
3.1.3. Data Requirements of the LCA Tool
- Heating system
- Replacement of heating system
- New circulation pump
- Building envelope
- Additional insulation (in any part of the envelope)
- Additional façade system (including insulation)
- New windows
- New doors
- Ventilation system
- New ventilation ducts (supply and/or exhaust)
- New ventilation equipment (with or without heat recovery)
- New air distribution units, silencer, etc.
- Radiators, piping and electricity
- New radiators
- New pipes (heating, water, sewage)
- Relining of pipes
- New electric cables
3.1.4. Environmental Data
3.1.5. The Production Phase
3.1.6. Energy Consumption during the Use Phase
3.1.7. End of Life Treatment
3.2. Economic Aspects
3.2.1. Life Cycle Cost Tool
|Period for LCC calculations||year|
|Interest rate, calculated for costing purposes||%/year|
|Annual adjustment of charges||%/year|
|Area affected (i.e., the part included in the calculation)||m2|
|Cost of capital||%/year|
|Increase in prices (VAT, OH, etc.)||%|
|Investment items/entries||SEK, SEK/m2|
|Investment subsidies and revenue entries||SEK|
|Reinvestment and replacements|
|Replacement interval or useful lifetime||year|
|Reinvestment costs||SEK, SEK/m2|
|Running management and maintenance|
|Management and maintenance costs per year, month, week||SEK/m2|
|District heating costs||SEK/kWh|
|Hot water costs||SEK/kWh|
|Energy consumption, district heating||kWh/year|
|Energy consumption, hot water||kWh/year|
|Energy consumption, electricity||kWh/year|
|Rental income and loss of rental income|
|Space required by renovation measures (new shafts, internal insulation, lifts, etc.)||m2|
|Change in income from rents per year||SEK, SEK/m2|
3.2.2. Evaluation of Different Renovation Alternatives
3.3. Social Aspects
3.3.1. Identification of Social Aspects Relevant for Renovation
3.3.2. Suggested Indicators for Social Sustainability
18.104.22.168. A Cohesive City
- There is a variety of apartments of different sizes (varied selection of number of rooms).
- There is variation in rent levels (ranging from minimum rent for the base offering, to higher rents for a higher standard).
- There is a variation in the forms of ownership (rental, condominium, private ownership).
- There is accommodation suited to special needs (elderly, disabled, etc.).
22.214.171.124. Social Interaction, Teamwork, and Meetings
- There are physical environments such as indoor venues, collective farms, common spaces connected to entrances and stairways, laundry rooms, gardens, allotments, barbecue facilities, and playgrounds.
- There are formal and informal groups, as well as organized activities and events such as garden days, cleaning days, Christmas parties, and workshops.
- Tenants are able to affect the ongoing renovation process. They have access to different channels for their views, through arenas such as local tenants’ associations, open houses, apartment viewings, interest groups, and the possibility to respond to polls and participate in workshops. Information must be available at information meetings with the tenants.
126.96.36.199. A Well-Functioning Everyday Life
- The renovation does not cause significant disturbance to the everyday life of the residents. This includes the ability to continue living in their apartments during the renovation process, or the possibility of moving into a temporary apartment. The effects regarding the performance of the apartment and disturbances in terms of noise, dirt, and daylight are also important factors, along with the duration of the renovation process.
- The tenant receives adequate instructions and information about the renovated apartment.
- The renovation results in a reasonable increase of the rent (which may be expressed as a percentage).
- The standard and flexibility of the apartment is perceived as adequate (dishwasher, washing machine, wardrobes, flexibility in the use of space for storage, utilization of bedrooms, rent, etc.).
- The accommodation has easy access for the elderly and disabled (design of entrances, elevators, bathrooms, lighting).
- There is access to bike and stroller storage, parking facilities, and storage facilities.
188.8.131.52. Identity and Experience
- The building owner has conducted a dialogue with stakeholders (residents, visitors) to identify the spirit of the area and different qualities and weaknesses, as well as the stakeholders’ desires for the future.
- The indoor environment is perceived as adequate.
- The quality and standard of the apartment concerning e.g., material selection and workmanship is perceived as adequate in comparison to similar apartments in other buildings.
- Design qualities such as architectural, cultural, and environmental aspects are considered during the renovation.
184.108.40.206. Health and Green Urban Environments
- There is access to surrounding areas for the purpose of recreation, such as walking trails, forests, green areas, playgrounds, gardens, and places for farming and animal husbandry.
- There is access to a balcony or terrace.
- The noise level of the outdoor environment is low and not distracting.
220.127.116.11. Safety, Security, and Openness
- Places in the building or the surrounding area which are perceived as insecure have been identified, e.g., through a safety tour.
- Measures to reduce insecurity have been implemented (e.g., lighting, design of entrances, laundry rooms, and walkways, access to an emergency telephone number).
- Security staff is available in the area.
- There is some form of organized neighborhood watch.
- The response time in the event of damage is perceived as very short.
3.3.3. Social LCA
3.3.4. Some Final Remarks on Studying the Social Sustainability of Different Renovation Alternatives
4. Evaluation of the Level of Sustainability of Different Renovation Measures
5. Discussion and Conclusions
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© 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
Mjörnell, K.; Boss, A.; Lindahl, M.; Molnar, S. A Tool to Evaluate Different Renovation Alternatives with Regard to Sustainability. Sustainability 2014, 6, 4227-4245. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6074227
Mjörnell K, Boss A, Lindahl M, Molnar S. A Tool to Evaluate Different Renovation Alternatives with Regard to Sustainability. Sustainability. 2014; 6(7):4227-4245. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6074227Chicago/Turabian Style
Mjörnell, Kristina, Anna Boss, Markus Lindahl, and Stefan Molnar. 2014. "A Tool to Evaluate Different Renovation Alternatives with Regard to Sustainability" Sustainability 6, no. 7: 4227-4245. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6074227