Next Article in Journal
How Does Paying for Ecosystem Services Contribute to Sustainable Development? Evidence from Case Study Research in Germany and the UK
Next Article in Special Issue
EMAS Regulation in Italian Clusters: Investigating the Involvement of Local Stakeholders
Previous Article in Journal
Learning for a Sustainable Economy: Teaching of Green Competencies in the University
Previous Article in Special Issue
Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study

A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands B15 2TT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2014, 6(5), 2993-3018;
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 7 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 May 2014 / Published: 19 May 2014
The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating) that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW) and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination) of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4); roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2); garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2) and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK) with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature). Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban water demand management; user behaviour; water saving devices urban water demand management; user behaviour; water saving devices
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hunt, D.V.L.; Rogers, C.D.F. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use. Sustainability 2014, 6, 2993-3018.

AMA Style

Hunt DVL, Rogers CDF. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use. Sustainability. 2014; 6(5):2993-3018.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hunt, Dexter V.L., and Christopher D.F. Rogers. 2014. "A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use" Sustainability 6, no. 5: 2993-3018.

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop