1.1. Gender in Sustainability Communication—State of Art
1.2. Gender in Sustainability Communication Research
- Content analysis of media like posters, films, clips, and advertisements, is often assigned in seminars. The traditions of gender studies and gender media studies are used to analyze such media products. An outstanding study was done by Rogers in which he analyzed three advertisements and worked out the complex interrelations between meat consumption as a code for masculinity, sustainability as a threat to hegemonic masculinity, and masculinity as a threat to sustainability . See also Section 3.1.
2. Methodical Approach
2.1. Empirical Data Base
- A random but comprehensive collection of examples (archive) of public communication focusing on.
- Public discourse on gender issues in times of cultural change (top stories in leading journals, tv-programms, tv-spots)
- Social marketing campaigns for environmental protection/sustainable development.
- A biographical study of German pioneers in environmental communication , using 20 extensive narrative interviews [20,21] collected between 1998 and 2002; The aim of this research was to analyse about the establishment of environmental communication as a newly emerging branch of environmental careers and about potential issues of social construction of gender in the process of professionalisation. The same number of male and female interviewees were gradually selected from the diverse areas of the field (journalism, film, public relations, corporate communications, community services, education); the interviews were made in form of uninterrupted narrations, with only a few claryfying questions at the end; following the method of Grounded Theory , the approach to the qualitative data had to be very open in the beginning (open coding), then was narrowed down to research questions (theoretical sensitive coding) that emerged from the data; the validation of preliminary results was achieved in interpretation workshops at different universities.
2.2. Theoretical and Historical Background
2.2.1. Gender Research before and after 2000
|Research object||Name of research||Approach|
|Women vs. patriarchalism||Feminist studies|
1970 and 1980s
|advocacy in research, women friendly|
|Scientific system||Feminist critique of science 1970 and 1980s||epistemological|
|Academically integrated, less political than feminist studies|
|Starting from social movements, turning into academic research|
Starting around 1986
|Analogy to women’s studies, partly advocatory|
|Femininity/masculinity and gender relations||Gender studies|
Starting around 1990
|gender-sensitive in a broad sense|
|diverse sexual identities||Queer studies|
Starting in early 1990s
|Gender-sensitive in a broad sense, advocatory for gay movement, transgender etc.|
|Complex interplay of gender, ethnicity, class, age, religion, abilities etc.||Gender and Diversity|
Starting around 2005
|Gender only one of several categories of analysis; anti-discriminatory aspects|
- The abstract level of symbols, norms, myths of masculinity vs. feminity;
- The concrete level of societal (infra)structures that help organize our daily life (family, education, work, health, transport) and prestructure individual behavior;
- The concrete level of individuals’ lifes (biographies).
3. Results: Gender and Unsustainability
3.1. Masculinity and Unsustainability
- Respect and care for the community of life (e.g., long-term thinking; respect of human rights);
- Ecological integrity (e.g., by a precautionary approach);
- Social and economic justice (equitable distribution of wealth within nations and among nations; elimination of discrimination in all its forms);
- Democracy, nonviolence and peace (e.g., participation in decision-making).
3.2. “Not Better, but Different”—Femininity and Unsustainability
3.3. Gender Roles in Times of Change
3.3.1. Working Women, New Men, Single parents, New Family Models
3.3.2. Effects of Environmentalism
3.4. Gender-Oriented Sustainability Communication
Conflicts of Interest
References and Notes
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