Critical Omissions and New Directions for Sustainable Tourism: A Situated Macro–Micro Approach
- To trace the history and discourse of sustainable tourism plus alternative approaches (like responsible tourism), as well as the parallel evolution of forms, like ecotourism. We examine also the discourses of sustainable development and ecological modernization that are seen to play an influential role in shaping these concepts;
- To identify and discuss some key issues and omissions that are revealed in the excavation conducted above, including the challenge of address intangible cultural relationships such as human-environmental relationships in ecotourism;
- To forward some conceptual approaches and practical directions to better situate sustainable tourism within a framework based justice and an ethic of care.
2. Responsible Tourism and Sustainable Tourism: Evolution and Critique
- Minimizes negative economic, environmental, and social impacts;
- Generates greater economic benefits for local people and enhances the well-being of host communities, improves working conditions and access to the industry;
- Involves local people in decisions that affect their lives and life chances;
- Makes positive contributions to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage, to the maintenance of the world’s diversity;
- Provides more enjoyable experiences for tourists through more meaningful connections with local people, and a greater understanding of local cultural, social and environmental issues;
- Provides access for physically challenged people, and
- Is culturally sensitive, engenders respect between tourists and hosts, and builds local pride and confidence
Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity, and life support systems (p. 30).
2.1. Critical Micro–Macro Intersections and Clash of Perspectives and Values
2.2. Ecotourism and the Discourse of Ecological Modernization
Most “green” theories and practices, however, increasingly centre on “grey” outcomes—who will “denature” Nature for whom, in what ways, for how long, to serve what ends? —although they often raise this very ineffectively with few original insights into what is really unfolding here.(, p. 197).
Ecotourism is environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features—both past and present) that promotes conservation, has low negative visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local populations.(Ceballos-Lascuráin, adopted by IUCN )
Ecotourism is defined as “responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people.”
3. Filling in Some Critical Gaps and Omissions
How clear are the ethical guidelines and goals of ST and ecotourism? What interests shaped these? What’s missing? Do they provide clear directions and principles of justice and ethics, to address issues related to, among others, diversity, race and ethnicity, gender, pro-poor/poverty alleviation, equity and inclusivity?
3.1. The Missing ‘Body’ in Critical Sustainable Tourism Research
3.2. A Missing Ethic of Justice and Care for Sustainability?
“Stronger voices from the South are demanding more-representative frameworks of international governance that embody the principles of democracy and equity”.(, p. 1)
- Ecocultural justice with respect to matters of procedural justice enables the active involvement of a destination’s resident stakeholders (including indigenous, low-income, diverse and minority groups) in the development and marketing of their ecocultural goods for tourism purposes. It includes attention to participative justice and restorative justice (see ).
- Ecocultural equity pertains to issues of distributive justice and equitable, fair distribution of development, marketing and promotion initiatives among different groups, with particular attention to the needs of disadvantaged populations, low income, diverse, and minority groups.
- Ecocultural discrimination refers to the exclusion of individuals, groups and disadvantaged populations from participating in tourism development, marketing planning, and decision-making related to the use and distribution of ecological and cultural goods and services. It includes exclusion due to ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and disability, among others.
- Ecocultural racism refers to discrimination and unfair treatment due to race or ethnicity. It is manifested in acts such as disrespect, marginalization, and exclusion of the destination’s ethnic group and their ecocultural goods (particularly disadvantaged, diverse and minority groups and individuals) from benefiting from tourism development and marketing. It also includes the accruing of disbenefits such as negative, problematic and stereotypical representation of these groups in tourism-related advertising and promotion.
4. Towards New Directions Forward?
Conflicts of Interest
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Jamal, T.; Camargo, B.A.; Wilson, E. Critical Omissions and New Directions for Sustainable Tourism: A Situated Macro–Micro Approach. Sustainability 2013, 5, 4594-4613. https://doi.org/10.3390/su5114594
Jamal T, Camargo BA, Wilson E. Critical Omissions and New Directions for Sustainable Tourism: A Situated Macro–Micro Approach. Sustainability. 2013; 5(11):4594-4613. https://doi.org/10.3390/su5114594Chicago/Turabian Style
Jamal, Tazim, Blanca A. Camargo, and Erica Wilson. 2013. "Critical Omissions and New Directions for Sustainable Tourism: A Situated Macro–Micro Approach" Sustainability 5, no. 11: 4594-4613. https://doi.org/10.3390/su5114594