Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Looking for a Silver Lining: The Possible Positives of Declining Energy Return on Investment (EROI)
Previous Article in Journal
Peak Phosphorus: Clarifying the Key Issues of a Vigorous Debate about Long-Term Phosphorus Security
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ultra-Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Oil and Gas: Energy Return on Financial Investment and a Preliminary Assessment of Energy Return on Energy Investment
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2011, 3(11), 2050-2070;

Energy Return on Investment for Norwegian Oil and Gas from 1991 to 2008

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 353, SE-75121, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Graduate Program in Environmental Science, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 September 2010 / Revised: 15 February 2011 / Accepted: 15 March 2011 / Published: 26 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Studies in EROI (Energy Return on Investment))
Full-Text   |   PDF [242 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]


Norwegian oil and gas fields are relatively new and of high quality, which has led, during recent decades, to very high profitability both financially and in terms of energy production. One useful measure for profitability is Energy Return on Investment, EROI. Our analysis shows that EROI for Norwegian petroleum production ranged from 44:1 in the early 1990s to a maximum of 59:1 in 1996, to about 40:1 in the latter half of the last decade. To compare globally, only very few, if any, resources show such favorable EROI values as those found in the Norwegian oil and gas sector. However, the declining trend in recent years is most likely due to ageing of the fields whereas varying drilling intensity might have a smaller impact on the net energy gain of the fields. We expect the EROI of Norwegian oil and gas production to deteriorate further as the fields become older. More energy-intensive production techniques will gain in importance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Norwegian oil and gas sector; Energy Return on Investment; net energy Norwegian oil and gas sector; Energy Return on Investment; net energy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Grandell, L.; Hall, C.A.; Höök, M. Energy Return on Investment for Norwegian Oil and Gas from 1991 to 2008. Sustainability 2011, 3, 2050-2070.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top