- freely available
Sustainability 2010, 2(4), 1138-1160; doi:10.3390/su2041138
2. Behavior and Environmental Regulation
2.1. The Behavioral Underpinnings of Regulation
2.2. Regulation of Individual Environmental Behavior
3. Community—Based Social Marketing
3.1. Social Marketing and the Development of Community-Based Social Marketing
3.2. The Elements of Community-Based Social Marketing
4. Using Community-Based Social Marketing Programs to Support Environmental Regulation
4.1. Individual Behavioral-Based Interventions as a Part of Regulatory Strategy
4.2. Case Studies of Community-Based Social Marketing Programs Supporting Regulation
- Clean Air Action Days: When smog levels were extremely high, voluntary pollution prevention actions were recommended by participating businesses to customers and employees. These included a reduction in driving, petroleum powered lawnmower use, and aerosol use. Retailers posted signs in their stores and held in-store announcements. This extended to media advertising by retailers such as Wal-Mart and car dealerships, which promoted “car smart” ideas such as carpooling and lower emission cars. Businesses were rewarded through complimentary advertising in the Portland Business Journal.
- Non-work Trip Reduction: Portland General Electric and Blockbuster Video encouraged residents to reduce non-work trips through a pledge program asking them to seek an alternative to driving alone to the video store. Where customers did so, they were rewarded with a discount on their video rental. A car sharing program was implemented in one neighborhood.
- Sale of low-VOC consumer products: Retail store Fred Meyer promoted low-VOC emission products through shelf signage, in-store announcements, and buttons for staff that provided information about choosing products lower in VOC emissions. Promotions were held for low-VOC products, such as discounts for low-VOC paint.
- Lawnmower Buy Back Scheme: A gasoline lawnmower buy-back scheme was implemented to encourage residents to swap to electric or push mowers. Rebates were offered on electric and push mowers. The program was promoted through television advertising, in-store promotions, neighborhood events (such as a lawnmower-a-thon to test different types of lawnmowers). The program was very successful, particularly once rebates were offered on all brands of electric and push mowers.
- Paint Pollution Prevention: A partnership was formed between three paint manufacturers to promote their low and zero-VOC paint products. One manufacturer offered discount coupons on the purchase of their products. Sales of zero-VOC paint increased, and several paint manufacturers abandoned production of paints with high-VOC emissions.
4.3. Implementing Community-Based Social Marketing Programs to Support Regulation: Some Observations
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