Lessons Learned from the Educational Experience during COVID-19 from the Perspective of Latin American University Students
1.1. Virtual and Hybrid Learning
1.2. Objective of the Study
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Participants and Instruments
2.2. Procedure and Ethical Considerations
2.3. Analysis Plan
3.1. Pedagogical Practices That Motivate Learning in Virtual Education
3.1.1. Instructional Design
3.1.2. Student–Teacher Interaction
3.1.3. Teaching strategies
3.1.4. Performance Approach Strategies
3.2. Most Effective Resources and Activities for E-Learning
3.3. Benefits of Virtual Education
4.1. Pedagogical Procedures to Motivate Learning
4.1.1. Practices Associated with the Instructional Design
4.1.2. Practices of Teacher–Student Interaction
4.1.3. Teaching Strategies
4.1.4. Practices for Addressing Students’ Learning Achievement
4.2. Resources and Activities Considered the Most Effective for Learning
4.3. Benefits of Virtual Education
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Categories||Dimensions||Units of Analysis|
|Virtual classroom features||Organization||“That all the material is uploaded to a platform and that it is organized” (P88).|
“The classroom organization; I could sort out from what complicated me the most to the least complicated” (P142).
|Pedagogical structure||“…that all the material is uploaded to a platform and that it is presented by week according to the subject plan” (syllabus) (P88).|
“The previous organization of the course in the classroom, the activities to be developed in the cycle, indicating from the beginning of the cycle the work to be carried out and their respective dates, in this way it is not mixed with the tasks of the other subjects” (P631).
|Diversity of learning materials||“I think the diversified material, through which they wanted the student to be interested in the content through the different methods and materials that were presented” (P71).|
“That the class was didactic and with a variety of ways to transmit the information” (P191).
“Teachers used different resources such as videos or did dynamic activities and that motivated me a little more (P201).
|Quantity of learning materials||“Greater amount of material” (P81).|
“There was much more, and one could choose, or you had more to lean on to study.”(P352).
|Material availability||“An advantage over face-to-face is the possibility of being able to view the content at any time and at any time” (P345).|
“One of the biggest advantages is being able to have the recordings and the access documents in a much faster way, also the notices/announcements” (P372).
|Consideration of breaks||“The weeks of recess and there was not so much academic overload” (P213).|
“The weeks of recess, since I took time to catch up, calm down and rest” (P112).
“There was a week when a short break was taken that served as a time to catch up or review what we missed understanding” (P77).
|Evaluations||Time to carry out assessments||“Have more time for assessments” (P81).|
“More time in the assessments” (102).
“The time to be able to carry out some assessments” (P243).
|Variety of assessments||“The use of more creative and varied strategies to assess, not just written, oral or presentation exams” (P320).|
“Various evaluation methods in a digital and simpler way” (P327).
|formative assessment||“Formative assessments with hypothetical and realistic cases” (P45).|
“Small tasks or more frequent assessments that do not have notes and allow you to rehearse” (P493).
|Of the resources||Quality of audiovisual materials||“That the videos and audio are of good quality” (P88).|
“Good image and video quality” (P626)
|Categories||Dimensions||Units of Analysis|
|Interaction functions||Promotion of participation||“Involve the student during class and also check if he is paying attention, for example, ask him to read a section and reflect on it” (P201).|
“Teachers offer many spaces to ask all the doubts that arise” (P234).
|Support to resolve doubts||“The willingness to answer any questions” (P259). |
“The availability to answer questions at any time respecting schedules” (P343).
“The fact that there were more possibilities to solve the doubts, with the same teachers” (P619).
|Support against learning difficulties||“The willingness of the teachers to help when one told them that they did not understand” (P385).|
|Attention to the learning rhythms||“Teachers show concern… addressing and taking educational needs into account” (P191).|
“In addition to being concerned about how we were doing with the content, they were more attentive” (P257).
|Teacher availability||“Incredibly my teachers were more expeditious in virtual than in face-to-face” (P383).|
“The fact that the teachers are ready to listen to us and support us in what we asked to reinforce, and they took the time” (P517).
|Teacher flexibility||“The flexibility to carry out assessments or tasks… the flexibility to access classes” (P93).|
“The flexibility in the delivery of work” (P103).
|Understanding of teacher before unforeseen||“Better understanding of teachers about students’ situations” (P341).|
“The understanding of the teachers that in person is totally different” (P6).
“Understanding in the face of various situations” (P182).
|Communication||Varied media||“That they gave all possible ways to be able to have the best communication with the teacher” (P132). “Communication by different means” (P24).|
|Communication frequency||“Greater communication regarding doubts/questions with teachers” (P327).|
|Opportunities for communication||“Collaboration via chat, the ease of commenting and not interrupting the teacher” (P309).|
|Categories||Dimensions||Units of Analysis|
|Active learning methodology||Linking synchronous material with asynchronous material||“Complementary activities on the topic to later discuss the results in class” (P320).|
“Activities in the (virtual) classroom are useful for the classes” (P233).
“We were asked to read more than usual, the good thing and what motivated me, was that classes were based on texts or chapters that we analyzed previously” (P18).
“Conversations related to the materials of the virtual classroom” (P311).
|Use of ICT||“Use of PPT, videos, informative images” (P69).|
“Use different virtual tools to develop my learning” (P244).
|Games/gamification||“Knowledge games” (P24).|
“Quiz and online trivia games of questions (P386).
“Virtual games to answer questions in a certain time, where the first places are finally rewarded” (P28).
|Collaborative learning strategies||Discussions||“Group discussions on the topics of the subject and by forums” (P345).|
|Analysis by shared documents||“Shared screen on which students can write” (P386).|
|Group work||“Cooperative work in groups, where there is support from the classmates and it is possible to better understand the contents by interacting with each other” (P64).|
|Meaningful and problem-based learning strategies||Authenticity||“Those strategies that focused on practical activities rather than theory” (P195).|
“Guides to solve exercises, laboratories” (P611).
“They presented you with a situation and you had to solve it, what would you do, like case analysis” (P222).
|Use of examples||“Explanation with the use of many examples” (P347).|
|Use of teacher experiences||“That teachers will tell personal experiences regarding the subject” (P76).|
“Share your professional experience” (P311).
|Categories||Dimension||Units of Analysis|
|Feedback Types||Individual||“Feedback… from tutoring at the individual level” (P154).|
|Group||“Feedback at the end of the class with some group activity” (P240).|
|Public||“The classes where we had to present, due to the teacher’s feedback” (P77).|
|Anonymous||“Anonymous surveys, and then their feedback” (P53).|
|Feedback moments||At the beginning of the class||“Feedback from the previous class, at the beginning of the class” (P365).|
|Immediately after execution||“The tests results were delivered immediately, with the mistakes we made; the feedback was more immediate” (P172).|
“The teacher used applications such as kahoot that provided with feedback on the material passed in class” (P293).
“Where the teacher observes the student’s actions and corrects, in real time, the acquired learning errors” (P561).
|Instructional feedback||To the capacity||“They were attentive, they were concerned about telling us what we had not learned or why the note???” (P191).|
|To the work procedure||“The teacher congratulated us for being attentive to his instructions and working with concentration” (P400).|
“You are motivated by things like being rewarded with extra point for grades for finishing the work on time” (P283).
|Reinforcements and constructive verbal persuasion by the teacher||Convey an expectation of competence||“The motivation that the teachers encourage in us so that we keep moving forward for achieving our goal, to make us feel that we are competent” (P45).|
“The value practices of the teacher” (P154).
“The teacher in general made me feel comfortable to ask questions or make comments because some teachers make you feel that what you say whatever you want” (P373).
|Giving reward||“Participation and attendance points” (P343).|
“Offer extra points for grades for participation” (P26).
|Giving reinforcement/praise||“The praises the teacher gave us when we did well” (P343).|
“If I’m honest, in my case when the teacher highlighted the work, and you see that it is worth the effort, which made you want to give more” (P81).
|Conveying usefulness and importance||“That we were always told that there are no silly answers and that every question is always useful” (P69).|
|Category||Dimensions||Unit of Analysis|
|Educational resources||Recorded classes|| “Recorded classes, since they allow to analyze the content more than once” (P177). |
“Recorded classes as a means to revise or take extra notes” (P506).
|Infographics||“Making infographics helps a lot” (P26).|
“Audiovisual media like… infographics that allows to understand or visualize contents” (P203).
|Videos||Documentaries||“Documentaries that later are discussed” (P324).|
“Documentary videos” (P511).
|Instructional||“To see videos that explain key aspects step by step” (P372).|
|Solved exercises||“To see solved exercises and then discuss them” (P370).|
|Movies/series||“To use movies or popular series to exemplify” (P332).|
“The forums about movies made in class” (P369).
|Activities||Immediate response systems||“Reading assignments and then asking about them in class, with Menti, Kahoot or others…so that results are discussed in class” (P320).|
|Virtual games||“Online trivia games” (P386).|
“Online games in which you answer questions in a determined time, with prizes for the first places” (P28).
“Online games about the contents” (P121).
|Surveys||“Anonymous surveys and their feedback” (P53).|
“Surveys in class, the voting type, to see if we answered correctly” (P76).
|Forums||Academic content||“Interaction through forums about class content” (P620).|
“Group discussions about topics of the subject in forums” (P345).
|Consultation purposes||“Forums for questions” (P385).|
“The use of forums in which you could ask questions, and anyone could answer, if you did not understand something for example” (P81).
|Group rooms||“Virtual classrooms for working in group” (P168).|
“The experience of practical group work in virtual classrooms created by the teacher” (P238).
|Online collaboration and document sharing||“To create documents collaboratively online” (P586).|
|Interactive blackboard||“Online blackboards in which you were doing the work” (P582).|
|Simulations||“Use of simulation platforms that show the process that the teacher was explaining” (P441).|
|Learning materials integration||Resources (videos, pdf or other) related to group work||“Collaborative work with infographics, presentations, videos, which made work simpler and more entertaining” (P113).|
|Resources (videos, PDF or other) related to individual work||“Audiovisual media such as videos, infographics, etc. that allowed to understand when you study alone” (P203).|
|Resources (videos, PDF or other) related to immediate response systems||“Use of videos with questions to understand how much you know and key aspects” (P371).|
|Categories||Dimensions||Units of Analysis|
|Benefits for learning||Individual||Improve autonomy||“Greater autonomous learning” (P421).|
|Improve time organization||“Having more time to organize” (P408).|
|Improve learning strategies||“Virtual education helped me improve my study techniques” (P542).|
|Social||Promotes collaborative learning||“More collaborative work can be done” (P482).|
“More collaborative learning practices” (P598).
|Improves coordination for group work||“Coordination of time with classmates… This is how time for group study is used effectively” (P486).|
|More opportunities to work with other students||“More collaborative work, we learned from each other and worked with more classmates” (P67).|
“The teachers brought us together in groups on the same platform to share our knowledge and opinions with our classmates, encouraging collaborative work, the groups were assigned randomly, so we had the opportunity to work with classmates who are not your friends” (P112).
|Benefits for teaching||Better organization||“The organization of many teachers is better” (P367).|
“Better organization of the teachers’ time” (P445).
|Faster communication of information||“Speed in the transfer of information” (P154).|
“The speed of communication of information and warnings of unforeseen events” (P203).
|Best educational response||“The virtual teacher has more opportunities to change the ways to approach teaching, to change their teaching strategies to avoid that the student lose motivation, to learn better” (P286).|
|Attention to learning rhythms||“Seeing my teachers committed to us, looking for ways and methods to motivate us and help us as much as possible when they realized that it was difficult for us” (P148).|
|Timely feedback||“The feedback at the end of the class with some group activity or games with multiple choice questions, allowed to know how you were doing” (P240).|
|Personal benefits||Lower economic expense||“Decrease in expenses for mobility, food and others” (P594).|
“Savings in housing expenses for foreigners, tickets, food” (P429).
|Greater room comfort||“The comfort of being at home” (P646).|
|Better nutrition||“I ate healthier and at my hours” (P223).|
|Greater hours of sleep||“My hours of sleep increase by not having to travel two hours for 7 am classes” (P415).|
|Less exposure to risk||“The security of being able to be at home without being exposed to danger, theft” (P513).|
|Facilitating housework and parenting||“I could keep my home in order in a better way” (P463).|
“Since I am a mother, it allowed me to stay at home with my daughter who was very young” (P483).
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Lobos, K.; Cobo-Rendón, R.; García-Álvarez, D.; Maldonado-Mahauad, J.; Bruna, C. Lessons Learned from the Educational Experience during COVID-19 from the Perspective of Latin American University Students. Sustainability 2023, 15, 2341. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032341
Lobos K, Cobo-Rendón R, García-Álvarez D, Maldonado-Mahauad J, Bruna C. Lessons Learned from the Educational Experience during COVID-19 from the Perspective of Latin American University Students. Sustainability. 2023; 15(3):2341. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032341Chicago/Turabian Style
Lobos, Karla, Rubia Cobo-Rendón, Diego García-Álvarez, Jorge Maldonado-Mahauad, and Carola Bruna. 2023. "Lessons Learned from the Educational Experience during COVID-19 from the Perspective of Latin American University Students" Sustainability 15, no. 3: 2341. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032341