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Article

Fostering Customer Loyalty in Kitesurfing: The Case of a Nautical Sports Centre in Portugal

1
School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, Avenida do Atlântico, n.° 644, 4900-348 Viana do Castelo, Portugal
2
Centre for Tourism Research, Development and Innovation (CITUR), Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Rua Dom João III—Solum, 3030-329 Coimbra, Portugal
3
Applied Digital Transformation Laboratory (ADIT-LAB), Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun’Álvares, n.° 34, 4900-367 Viana do Castelo, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2023, 15(22), 15767; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152215767
Submission received: 1 October 2023 / Revised: 5 November 2023 / Accepted: 7 November 2023 / Published: 9 November 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Consumption: Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors)

Abstract

:
In this study, the relationship between service quality, customer satisfaction, and behavioural intention is investigated within a specialised nautical sports centre that offers kitesurfing in Portugal. Using a path analysis model, this study aims to evaluate the effect of the dimensions of service quality on satisfaction and behavioural intention, as well as the effect of satisfaction on the customer’s behavioural intention. According to the results, customer satisfaction is influenced directly by service quality dimensions such as responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibility. This, in turn, positively impacts their behavioural intention to make future purchases. The responsiveness dimension directly affects behavioural intention, while empathy contributes to it indirectly through customer satisfaction. This study addresses a gap in current water sports research by examining the antecedents of customers’ behavioural intention, for the first time, to a nautical sports centre, deriving important managerial implications. Thus, to increase customer satisfaction and increase the likelihood of repeating their experience, it is advised that the sports centre implement clear work procedures, offer training to staff on responsiveness and empathy, and regularly gather feedback from customers to facilitate continuous improvement of their service design.

1. Introduction

Kitesurfing is a water sport integrated into a very competitive market, strongly focused on brands. As in many other markets, due to the increasing intensity of competition, it is increasingly difficult for companies not only to obtain customers but also to retain them in the long term. Now, this reality implies the development of increasingly efficient marketing strategies on the part of organisations linked to this sector [1].
Although sport management is gaining more prominence in the scientific community [2], nautical sport is an area that requires more research, not only linked to the sport [3], as well as the field of tourism, as a segment that deserves growing interest from academics [4,5]. On the other hand, the scientific community has highlighted the importance of carrying out more studies on the determinants of customer loyalty, whether related to sports or related to nautical tourism [2,6].
Over the past few decades, service quality has become an increasingly important concept. In the 1980s, there were notable developments in the field, including the emergence of the Perceived Service Quality and SERVQUAL models [7,8]. In the 1990s, new perspectives on service quality emerged, with models such as SERVPERF [9], Performance-Evaluation [10], 4 Q’s [11], and Service Quality presented by Rust and Oliver [12] gaining attention. During this time, two quality measurement tools, the Balanced Scorecard [13] and the EFQM Model [14], also gained importance. However, the SERVQUAL model has remained the most widely used tool for assessing service quality across various sectors [15,16], such as sports [17,18] and tourism [19,20].
Defining consumer satisfaction is not straightforward as there are multiple definitions for the same concept. According to Oliver [21], satisfaction is a psychological state that arises when comparing the benefits and costs received from a company to the expected benefits associated with a particular purchase. Churchill and Suprenant [22] also believe that satisfaction is determined by comparing the costs and benefits of acquiring a service. Westbrook [23] views satisfaction as an emotional state that arises from evaluating a service, while Zeithaml and Bitner [24] suggest that the customer’s evaluation of a service depends heavily on personal factors.
However, Oliver (1993) [25] also states that satisfaction is conditioned by an initial level of expectations created and by their disconfirmation, through the perceptions of experience. Thus, he considers that the antecedents of customer satisfaction are related to expectations, the disconfirmation of expectations, and an emotional component of the customer himself.
Although satisfaction can be seen as a positive emotional state of the customer, which results from their interaction with a particular company, some authors believe that satisfaction should be viewed from a relational, global, or cumulative perspective, which considers all the customer’s transactions with the company [26,27].
It is interesting to note that, if a customer has a positive experience with a company, they are more likely to remain loyal and purchase more products or services in the future [1]. Ajzen’s Theory of Reasoned Action, along with its extension, the Theory of Planned Behaviour, measures the positive experience of a customer, which can lead to a positive intention to repurchase. This intention is a direct precursor to the customer’s behaviour, and it determines whether they will make another purchase from the same company [28,29,30].
Recognising that several researchers linked to services, namely, sport [31,32] and nautical tourism [5,6], consider that service quality and customer satisfaction are antecedents of behavioural intention, this investigation strives to fill a gap identified in the state of the art, since there are no studies strictly linked to nautical sports that assess the antecedents of behavioural intention. On the other hand, in a highly competitive market, customer loyalty plays a crucial role in both market growth strategy and promoting sustainable consumption attitudes and behaviours [33,34]. Thus, this study highlights the importance of service quality and customer satisfaction in influencing users to repeat their consumption experience at a specialised nautical sports centre that provides kitesurfing practice and training in Viana do Castelo, Portugal. More specifically, this study intends to evaluate the effect of the dimensions of service quality on satisfaction and behavioural intention, as well as the effect of satisfaction on the customer’s behavioural intention regarding the repurchase of services offered in a nautical sports centre.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Perceived Quality and Satisfaction

There seems to be an apparent consensus on the fundamental distinction between satisfaction and service quality, for the main researchers on this subject. The most common explanation of the difference between service quality and satisfaction is that the first is recognised in the form of an attitude, subject to continuous and permanent evaluation, and the second is seen as a transaction-specific measure [35,36,37]. Cronin and Taylor [9] also state that quality is something that is inferred in the long term, while satisfaction is the result of a particular service provision. For other researchers, satisfaction is broader than service quality, involving several factors, namely, price, expectation, and performance, which translate, in other words, into price, perceived product quality, and perceived service quality [23,38].
Some researchers suggest that the quality of a nautical destination can directly impact tourist satisfaction [39,40]. Ulfy et al. [39] found that the five dimensions of perceived quality (safety, reliability, empathy, tangibility, and responsibility) are essential factors for customer satisfaction. Similarly, in the context of sports events and organisations, authors such as Nuviala et al. [3] and Hyun and Jordan [41] argue that service quality is a significant predictor of customer satisfaction. In turn, linked to the education sector, the company’s main business area under study, several authors explain that perceived quality positively influences student satisfaction [31,42,43,44,45,46]. Apropos of this, Mansori et al. [44] also explain that several dimensions of service quality (e.g., empathy, responsibility, and tangibility) are strongly related to student satisfaction. Thus, considering the assertions presented, the following hypotheses are presented:
H1. 
Service quality influences customer satisfaction.
H1a. 
Tangibility influences customer satisfaction.
H1b. 
Reliability influences customer satisfaction.
H1c. 
Responsiveness influences customer satisfaction.
H1d. 
Security influences customer satisfaction.
H1e. 
Empathy influences customer satisfaction.

2.2. Satisfaction and Behavioural Intention

Prior to the 1970s, brand loyalty was predominantly viewed through a behavioural lens, based solely on the frequency and proportion of purchases made with a particular brand. This approach disregarded the psychological aspect of customer loyalty, i.e., the thoughts and emotions associated with a brand [47]. Jacoby [48] was the one who introduced the attitudinal and behavioural aspects of loyalty’s conceptualisation. He explained that loyalty to a brand can be seen as a result of three dimensions of attitudinal loyalty. The first dimension is cognitive, where the customer believes that the product/service’s performance is better than that of other brands in the same category. The second dimension is affective, where customers develop a favourable or unfavourable attitude towards the product/service. The third dimension is conative, which is related to the customer’s intention to repurchase the product/service.
While most studies show that satisfied customers are loyal and likely to make repeat purchases and recommendations [9,26,49,50,51,52,53], the Theory of Planned Behaviour also shows that a positive attitude leads to a positive behavioural intention of the customer. Furthermore, behavioural intention is assumed to be the immediate antecedent of behaviour and determines whether a customer will make a repeat purchase from a particular company [1].
Most studies related to sports organisations, nautical tourism, and education often resort to the concept of customer behavioural intention, to the detriment of the concept of loyalty, except for some works [31,43], which show the influence of satisfaction on customer loyalty. Indeed, many studies have confirmed the significant influence of satisfaction on the customer’s behavioural intention, namely, on their intentions to repurchase and recommend the place, not only in the nautical tourism segment [4,5,6,40,54,55], but also in the field of sports in general [3,31,41,56,57]. In the area of education, there are also several researchers highlighting that satisfaction influences the behavioural intention of students [42,46], namely, in the continuity of their studies [44]. Now, this evidence allows us to infer the following hypothesis:
H2. 
Customer satisfaction influences repurchase intention.

2.3. Perceived Quality and Behavioural Intention

Although several authors [9,37,47,58] believe that the correlation between quality performance and repeat purchases is weaker than the correlation between satisfaction and repeat purchases, various studies linked to the nautical tourism sector, sports, and education emphasise the relevance of service quality in the customer’s behavioural intention [42,52]. In the sectors mentioned, the SERVQUAL model is commonly utilised as a tool for measuring service quality [3,39,44].
In services, some studies recognised the indirect effect of service quality on behavioural intention, mediated by the satisfaction variable [41,46], and a variety of works have even shown that service quality directly influences customer behavioural intention [59,60,61]. In turn, some researchers have also revealed the existence of significant correlations and significant direct effects between the perceived quality and the customer’s behavioural intention, in the nautical tourism segment [62], in the domain of sports [63] and education [42,43,45]. In this area, it is worth mentioning a study carried out by Mansori et al. [44], where the five dimensions of the SERVQUAL model were applied, revealing that the dimensions of tangibility and empathy had a high influence on behavioural intention. Given the above, the following hypotheses to be investigated are presented:
H3. 
Service quality influences behavioural intention.
H3a. 
Tangibility influences behavioural intention.
H3b. 
Reliability influences behavioural intention.
H3c. 
Responsiveness influences behavioural intention.
H3d. 
Security influences behavioural intention.
H3e. 
Empathy influences behavioural intention.

3. Methodology

In this investigation, the quantitative methodology and the research technique of survey by questionnaire were used. The questionnaire was constructed in Portuguese and English, in paper format, as the company did not authorise sending the survey via email due to customer data protection. Thus, the questionnaire was accompanied by a short explanation of what was intended, with rating scales that should be used, and was administered directly by the researcher to users of the nautical sports centre in Viana do Castelo. This procedure made it possible to clarify any doubts that might arise and contribute to obtaining more reliable answers from respondents. After authorisation from the director of the sports centre, the data collection process lasted about three months (between June, July, and August). Most of the questionnaires were answered by users after completing the course within the water sports centre, allowing 125 completed questionnaires and 114 validated questionnaires. The lack of readability and incorrect completion were the reasons for the non-validation of 11 surveys.
The questions included in the questionnaire resulted from a previous literature review. To measure the Service Quality variable, an assessment was made of the perceptions and expectations associated with the five dimensions of service quality used in the SERVQUAL model, consisting of 22 items [37] and using a scale that ranged from “totally disagree” (1) to “totally agree” (7). In turn, to assess the Satisfaction variable, the item “I am satisfied with the training I received” was used, resulting from studies related to satisfaction with training [64,65]. Responses to statements related to satisfaction ranged from “Very Dissatisfied” (1), “Dissatisfied” (2), “Neither Satisfied/Dissatisfied” (3), “Satisfied” (4), and “Very Satisfied” (5). Finally, to measure the Behavioural Intention variable, the items “I will try to repeat it next year” and “I plan to repeat it next year” proposed by Hrubes, Ajzen, and Daigle [66]; Ajzen and Driver [30]; and Kaplanidou and Vogt [67] were used. The responses obtained ranged from “extremely unlikely” (1) to “extremely likely” (7).
For editing and analysing the collected data, the IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 28.0) was used, through which the sample characterisation analysis, internal consistency and sphericity tests, and exploratory analysis of the principal components were carried out [68].
To assess the direct effects of the dimensions of service quality on satisfaction and behavioural intention, as well as satisfaction on behavioural intention, a trajectory analysis was carried out using the IBM AMOS Software (Version 28.0). The Bootstrap method was used to analyse the indirect effects of the five dimensions of service quality, as described in [69].

4. Analysis and Discussion of Results

4.1. Sample Characterisation

The sample obtained in this investigation is composed of 114 clients, aged between 21 and 47 years old, with an average age of 30 years old and a standard deviation of 5.3 years old. Of the 114 clients, 29 are female (25.4%) and 85 are male (74.6%). The customers that make up the sample are divided into 15 nationalities (Germany, Spain, Portugal, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, U.K., Brazil, Netherlands, Emirates, Italy, Denmark, Switzerland, Poland, and Chile) with Portugal and Spain being the most representative nationalities (50.8%). The least expressive nationalities are Chile, Switzerland, Denmark, and the United Arab Emirates, representing about 3.5% of the total number of participants.

4.2. Path Analysis Model

To evaluate the effect of service quality dimensions on satisfaction and repurchase intention, as well as the effect of satisfaction on the repurchase intention of the kitesurfing services offered by the nautical sports centre in Viana do Castelo, we started by evaluating the reliability/internal consistency of the variables through Cronbach’s alpha. In the case of the 22 items under analysis, the value of Cronbach’s alpha (0.948) indicates that the variables under analysis have excellent internal consistency [68,70]. Then, based on the KMO value (0.89), Bartlett’s test of sphericity [χ2(210) = 2194.041; p < 0.001], and in the value of the commonalities of the items (all greater than 50%), it can be stated that the use of principal component analysis is acceptable.
Subsequently, five factors/groups were extracted using the principal component analysis method, which explains 79.846% of the variance present in the 22 original items. Based on the total explained variance, after factor rotation (varimax), we can identify five main components: component 1, which will be linked to empathy; component 2, which will be linked to responsiveness; component 3, which will be linked to reliability; component 4, which will be linked to tangibility; and component 5, which will be linked to assurance (Table 1).
Considering that the item “Employees of N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo are always polite/cordial” has a loading value, in the matrix of principal components, below 0.5 in the assurance dimension, it was removed from the trajectory analysis. In addition, it was found that the Cronbach’s alpha value of the remaining three items in the assurance dimension was greater than 0.70. Thus, all the components identified in the SERVQUAL questionnaire have Cronbach’s alpha values greater than 0.7. The values for empathy, responsiveness, reliability, tangibility, and assurance are 0.938, 0.914, 0.914, 0.843, and 0.887, respectively. However, the values are lower than the Cronbach’s alpha for all items in the questionnaire. This highlights the internal consistency of the five constructs, which is consistent with Kaber [70]. Moreover, analyses of asymmetry and kurtosis were conducted to verify the distribution of the manifest variables, and it was observed that the distribution is close to normal [68].
Based on the principal component analysis, to assess the effects of the dimensions of service quality on satisfaction and behavioural intention, and of satisfaction on behavioural intention, a trajectory analysis was conducted where the direct effects of the five dimensions of service quality were specified on satisfaction and behavioural intention, as well as satisfaction on behavioural intention (Figure 1). The specified trajectory model showed a good fit [70,71], [χ2 (5, N = 114) = 4.707 (χ2/gL) = 0.941], highlighting good relative indices (CFI = 1.000, GFI = 0.988, AGFI = 0.936, RMR = 0.025) and a good population discrepancy index [RMSEA = 0.000, 90% CI [0.000, 0.127]; p (rmsea ≤ 0.05) = 0.605].
In this analysis, it was possible to observe that the various dimensions are significantly correlated (p < 0.001). The magnitude of the correlations can be seen in Table 2.
On the other hand, it was found that the dimensions of responsiveness, assurance, and empathy had a direct effect on satisfaction; as well, responsiveness and satisfaction had a direct effect on behavioural intention, respectively. It should also be noted that tangibility had a negative direct effect on satisfaction (Table 3).
The results show the influence of service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction, in line with studies related to nautical tourism [39,72], as well as sports events and organisations [3,41]. On the other hand, the results corroborate the work of Mansori et al. [44], when explaining that the empathy and responsibility dimensions are strongly related to the client. Interestingly, this researcher also pointed out that tangibility was related to satisfaction. However, this study shows the existence of a negative relationship between the two variables (B = −0.192). This phenomenon can be explained by customers perceiving high performance in the tangibility dimension, such as facilities, equipment, or personnel, while neglecting other dimensions of service quality that have reduced perceptions of performance, ultimately resulting in perceptions of service failures in other areas. As a result, the overall service experience becomes inconsistent and overall satisfaction may decrease.
The direct influence of satisfaction on behavioural intention was another finding obtained in this study (B = 1.208), corroborating several studies carried out in the fields of sports [3], nautical tourism [32,56], and even education [42,46]. The results also reveal the direct effect of the responsiveness dimension on behavioural intention (B = 0.656), in line with some studies [43,62,63], showing the direct effect of service quality dimensions.
In addition, it is possible to see, once again, that the influence of the performance of the dimensions of service quality on behavioural intention is weaker than that which is verified between satisfaction and behavioural intention, as pointed out several years ago, by the scientific community [9,37,47].
For the analysis of the indirect effects of the dimensions of service quality on behavioural intention, via satisfaction, the Bootstrap method was used (Table 4).
In the analysis of the indirect effects of the service quality dimensions on behavioural intention, it was found that the empathy dimension contributed significantly to behavioural intention through satisfaction, as shown in Table 4 (b = 0.141, p = 0.039). This finding allows us to partially confirm the indirect effect of service quality on behavioural intention, mediated by the satisfaction variable, recognised by some researchers [41,42].

5. Conclusions

Sport management is becoming increasingly important in the scientific community. However, there is a need for more research in nautical sports, not only related to the sport itself but also to the field of tourism. This segment has received growing interest from academics. Additionally, the scientific community has emphasised the need for more studies on the factors that determine customer loyalty, whether in sports or nautical tourism.
Service quality and customer satisfaction are crucial factors that impact the behavioural intention of customers in sports and nautical tourism. However, the current research on nautical sports lacks an examination of their antecedents. This study aims to address this gap by focusing on a specialised nautical sports centre in Viana do Castelo, Portugal, which specialises in kitesurfing practice and training. The objective of this study is to determine how different dimensions of service quality impact customer satisfaction and their intention to repurchase services at the centre. Moreover, we will analyse how customer satisfaction influences their behavioural intention to repurchase these services in the future. Recognising the vital role of customer loyalty in the company’s growth strategy, as well as in promoting sustainable consumption attitudes and behaviours, this study emphasises the importance of maintaining high levels of service quality and customer satisfaction.
As theoretical implications of this study, it appears that it allowed corroboration of previous studies in this area of knowledge. The quality of service is directly linked to customer satisfaction. Specifically, the responsiveness, assurance, and empathy dimensions have a significant impact on customer satisfaction, which, in turn, influences behavioural intention. Curiously, the overall service experience appears to be inconsistent, leading to a decrease in satisfaction, when perceptions of the tangibility dimension increase. Notably, the responsiveness dimension plays a direct role in behavioural intention, and empathy contributes positively to this intention through the satisfaction of the customer. This finding shows, once again, that the influence of the performance of the dimensions of service quality on behavioural intention is weaker than that which is verified between satisfaction and behavioural intention. This study also addresses a gap in the current research on nautical sports by examining the antecedents of behavioural intention. Thus, it was the first study applied to a company dedicated to water sports activities, to study the relationship between service quality, satisfaction, and customer behavioural intention.
As practical implications of this investigation, it is recommended that the Viana do Castelo Nautical Sports Centre should establish clear work processes and the sequence of associated procedures. Additionally, it should assess whether it has adequate resources to meet the demands of its customers, to address any weaknesses related to responsiveness. It would be beneficial to invest in employee training that focuses on developing empathy, understanding customer needs, active listening, and responding with courtesy and respect. Furthermore, this centre should provide transparent and easily understandable communication, including accessible information on services, prices, and procedures, and avoid setting unrealistic expectations for customers. Encouraging sustainable practices through activities like plogging during stand-up paddleboarding, educational kayaking trips, and the use of sustainable equipment can also promote sustainable behaviour among happy and loyal customers. To improve service quality and redefine service specifications, the nautical sports centre must place a high priority on obtaining feedback from customers. Various methods such as surveys, interviews, or focus groups can be used to collect customer feedback. Collecting and using customer feedback can lead to more sustainable practices, addressing areas for improvement and minimizing negative impacts on the nautical sports centre.
It is also crucial to implement a complaints management system that facilitates fast and efficient problem resolution. These recommendations can help the Viana do Castelo Nautical Sports Centre to provide high-quality services and promote sustainable practices in the water sports industry. There are limitations to this study that should be noted. One of the main limitations is the small sample size. Therefore, it would be beneficial for future studies to include larger sample sizes, follow the same methodological approach, and check whether the results obtained corroborate. Although it would be interesting to extend this study to other nautical sports centres and other sports, allowing a better results comparison, it is worth mentioning that customer satisfaction and service perceptions may differ between different customer profiles in factors, such as age, consumer behaviour, level of proficiency, or sports affiliations [73]. Therefore, the results and implications of the study obtained should only be applied to the Viana do Castelo nautical sports centre, at the time the survey was carried out, and should not be generalised to other nautical sports centres. Additionally, it is recommended that a possible future line of investigation could be to analyse the perceptions of worker performance and satisfaction at the nautical sports centre. This would provide a more comprehensive understanding of the sports centre’s performance for both external clients and internal customers (professionals).

Author Contributions

Investigation, S.S., P.C. and M.F.M. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Data are contained within the article.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Figure 1. Path analysis model.
Figure 1. Path analysis model.
Sustainability 15 15767 g001
Table 1. Rotating component matrix.
Table 1. Rotating component matrix.
Components12345
The physical structure of N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo is visually attractive.0.1180.0150.2750.8080.111
N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo has visually attractive advertising materials associated with the service.0.1040.1180.1430.8280.135
N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo has modern equipment.0.2140.1000.2530.7870.041
The employees of N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo have a well-groomed appearance and are well-identified for the duties they perform.0.0340.4180.0760.6520.149
When N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo promises something within a certain period, it delivers.0.0400.1390.7530.3350.135
When a customer has a problem, N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo shows a sincere interest in solving it.0.2210.4110.6800.1290.265
N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo provides the appropriate service from the first contact.0.2090.4810.6980.1600.111
N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo fulfils the service it proposes promptly.0.1240.2180.7190.2740.391
N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo excels in the absence of errors.0.1500.2940.7050.3070.336
The employees of the N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo say exactly when the services will be carried out.0.1400.7230.1810.2850.325
At N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo, the employees provide a prompt response to the intended service.0.2710.8330.2580.2060.165
Employees of the N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo are always willing to help.0.2620.8040.2450.1840.231
N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo employees are never too busy to serve the customer.0.2570.7840.378−0.0270.053
The behaviour of employees at N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo conveys confidence to customers.0.2950.3520.3200.1430.655
I feel/the customer feels safe in transactions with DPC-Viana do Castelo.0.2360.1870.4190.2260.765
Employees of N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo are always polite/cordial.0.4030.4870.4030.1030.310
DPC-Viana do Castelo employees have the knowledge/training to answer customer questions.0.2920.3470.3450.1450.631
At N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo, they give individual attention to the customer.0.8250.3800.2580.0270.008
N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo operates at hours convenient to the customer.0.781−0.0790.0300.3020.314
The employees of N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo have a genuine concern for the well-being of the client.0.8650.0850.0420.2090.292
The employees of the N.S.C. understand the specific needs of each client.0.8670.3350.1540.0880.037
N.S.C.-Viana do Castelo has employees who provide personalised attention to customers.0.8310.3670.1650.0290.142
Extraction method: principal component analysis. Rotation method: varimax with Kaiser normalisation.
Table 2. Correlation matrix between dimensions [r].
Table 2. Correlation matrix between dimensions [r].
rAssuranceResponsivenessEmpathyReliabilityTangibility
Assurance10.6510.5760.7450.480
Responsiveness0.65110.5670.7040.424
Empathy0.5760.56710.4680.355
Reliability0.7450.7040.46810.562
Tangibility0.4800.4240.3550.5621
Table 3. Direct effect of service quality dimensions on satisfaction and behavioural intention.
Table 3. Direct effect of service quality dimensions on satisfaction and behavioural intention.
Direct EffectBS.E.Sig.[p]
Satisfaction < Responsiveness0.1330.0670.049
Satisfaction < Assurance0.2950.1180.013
Satisfaction < Empathy0.2300.0660.001
Satisfaction < Tangibility−0.1920.0670.004
Behavioural Intention < Responsiveness0.6560.1460.001
Behavioural Intention < Satisfaction 1.2080.2260.001
Table 4. Indirect effect of quality dimensions on behavioural intention.
Table 4. Indirect effect of quality dimensions on behavioural intention.
Indirect EffectIntention [b]Sig.[p]
Tangibility−0.1040.071
Empathy0.1410.039
Assurance0.1140.107
Responsiveness0.870.112
Satisfaction00
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Soares, S.; Carvalho, P.; Mourão, M.F. Fostering Customer Loyalty in Kitesurfing: The Case of a Nautical Sports Centre in Portugal. Sustainability 2023, 15, 15767. https://doi.org/10.3390/su152215767

AMA Style

Soares S, Carvalho P, Mourão MF. Fostering Customer Loyalty in Kitesurfing: The Case of a Nautical Sports Centre in Portugal. Sustainability. 2023; 15(22):15767. https://doi.org/10.3390/su152215767

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soares, Sílvia, Pedro Carvalho, and Maria Filipa Mourão. 2023. "Fostering Customer Loyalty in Kitesurfing: The Case of a Nautical Sports Centre in Portugal" Sustainability 15, no. 22: 15767. https://doi.org/10.3390/su152215767

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