Analysis of Civil Environments Cleaning Services—Microbiological and LCA Analysis after Traditional and Sustainable Procedures
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Cleaning Plan
2.2. Sampling Plan and Microbiological Evaluation
Swabs and Plates
2.3. Microbial Isolation and Identification
2.4. Cleaning Procedure
- Use of scrub cloths in TT treated at higher temperatures (60 °C) than TG (40 °C).
- The use of eco-labelled products for the cleaning of floors and surfaces in TT, with lower dilution of use (2–100%) compared to the products of the experimental protocol TG (dosage 0.8–10%).
- Use of eco-labelled textiles for the cleaning of floors and surfaces in the experimental protocol TG. Specifically, the cloths used for the cleaning of floors passed the test conducted by an independent laboratory following the ISO:23231 as for the release of microplastics in the water of washing and rinsing .
PFE Green and Traditional Protocols
2.5. Standard/GREEN Protocol Active Ingredients
2.5.1. Peracetic Acid
2.5.2. Sodium Hypochlorite
2.6. LCA Analysis
- The “upstream” phase included:
- extraction and processing of raw materials;
- transport of raw materials and semi-finished products to suppliers;
- the production of consumer goods, namely chemicals (detergents) and textiles (fringes);
- production of cleaning trolley;
- the production of machinery (washer and dryer, washing machine).
- The “core” phase included:
- the supply chain of consumer goods from producers to the yard;
- the implementation of the service through the use of chemicals and textiles;
- production of transport fuels;
- the production of electricity used in the construction site for the implementation of the service;
- water consumption for dilution of chemicals and by the washing machine.
- The “downstream” phase included:
- the transport and treatment of solid and wastewater generated by the processes of the “core” phase.
- The two systems compared have the same functional unit, they are equivalent in terms of spatial characteristics and interventions;
- Being a comparative analysis study, similar processes have not been considered, for example the transport of personnel at the site, which does not vary between the two protocols;
- The areas investigated are the same;
- The criteria for inclusion of inputs and outputs are identical;
- Data quality requirements are the same;
- Life cycle inventory units are identical;
- The calculation procedures are similar;
- Allocation rules are equivalent;
- The selected impact categories and characterization factors are identical (ISO:14067, GWP100);
- The types of intervention and the frequency of operations are identical;
- The surfaces are comparable by type of floor, functions of use of the property and overall dimensions of the surface itself;
- The degree of use of the sampled areas and dirt level are equivalent;
- As regards electricity consumption, due to the lack of specific data of the yard-specific supply contract, the residual national energy mix has been taken as a precautionary measure;
- The total area of the building is 38,150 sqm.
2.7. Statistical Analysis
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Cleaning Effectiveness
3.2. Microbial Isolation and Identification
3.3. LCA Analysis
- for the Green Protocol: cleaning chemicals (36.6%), energy consumption (28.5%) and laundry chemicals (17.3%);
- for the Traditional Protocol: textile equipment (46.2%), cleaning chemicals (24.8%) and energy consumption (12.6%).
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|ACC||Aerobic Colony Count|
|API||Analytical Profile Index|
|CAM||Minimal Environmental Criteria|
|CDBA||Clostridium difficile Agar Base|
|CFU||Colony Forming Unit|
|ClDA||Clostridium difficile Agar|
|GWP||Global Warming Potential|
|INAIL||Istituto Nazionale Assicurazione Infortuni sul Lavoro|
|IPCC||Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change|
|ISO||International Standard Organization|
|LCA||Life Cycle Assessment|
|MRSA||Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus|
|MSA||Mannitol Salt Agar|
|PCR||Product Category Rules|
|RODAC||Replicate Organism Detection And Counting|
|SDA||Sabouraud Dextrose Agar|
|TSA||Tryptic Soy Agar|
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|Wet dusting with detergent||Furniture in all indoor areas||Daily (7/7)|
|Wet dusting with detergent||Area 3—Toilets/changing rooms||Daily (7/7)|
|Periodic descaling toilets and sanitary||Sanitary in all internal areas||Bi-monthly (2/30)|
|Wet dusting of electronic equipment with suitable detergent||Cleaning of electronic, mechanical and computer equipment in Area 1—Offices and Area 4—Technical areas||Daily (7/7)|
|Disinfection of changing rooms||Inside and outside lockers in changing rooms in Area 3—Changing rooms||Daily (7/7)|
|Disinfection furniture accessories of bathrooms and showers||Area 3—Toilets||Daily (7/7)|
|Manual floor washing||All indoor areas (central arena excluded)||Bi-weekly (2/7)|
|Manual floor washing with detergent-disinfectant||Changing rooms||Bi-weekly (2/7)|
|Mechanized floor washing (with scrubbing machine)||Corridors in all internal areas||Bi-weekly (2/7)|
|Dry sweeping and punctual stain removal||Central Arena in Area 9—Sport spaces/stands/pools||Bi-weekly (2/7)|
|Washing of entrance doors and windows||Area 2—Connective spaces||Monthly (1/30)|
|Staphylococcus cohnii||Enterobacter spp.||Buttiauxella agrestis|
|Staph. hominis||Enterococcus faecium||Candida albicans|
|Staph. gallinarum||Enterococcus gallinarum||Candida boidinii|
|Staph. epidermidis||Enterococcus hirae||Candida catenulata|
|Staph. auricularis||Escherichia coli||Candida ciferrii|
|Staph. xylosus||Pectobacterium carotovorum||Trichosporon spp.|
|Staph. sciuri||Providencia rustigianii||Saccharomyces cerevisiae|
|Staph. capitis||Raoultella spp.|
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Fontana, R.; Marzola, M.; Buratto, M.; Trioschi, G.; Caproni, A.; Nordi, C.; Buffone, C.; Bandera, B.; Vogli, L.; Marconi, P. Analysis of Civil Environments Cleaning Services—Microbiological and LCA Analysis after Traditional and Sustainable Procedures. Sustainability 2023, 15, 696. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010696
Fontana R, Marzola M, Buratto M, Trioschi G, Caproni A, Nordi C, Buffone C, Bandera B, Vogli L, Marconi P. Analysis of Civil Environments Cleaning Services—Microbiological and LCA Analysis after Traditional and Sustainable Procedures. Sustainability. 2023; 15(1):696. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010696Chicago/Turabian Style
Fontana, Riccardo, Marco Marzola, Mattia Buratto, Giulia Trioschi, Anna Caproni, Chiara Nordi, Cesare Buffone, Beatrice Bandera, Luciano Vogli, and Peggy Marconi. 2023. "Analysis of Civil Environments Cleaning Services—Microbiological and LCA Analysis after Traditional and Sustainable Procedures" Sustainability 15, no. 1: 696. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010696