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Article

Sustainable Development of Agriculture in Member States of the European Union

1
Department of Agrotechnology and Agribusiness, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Logistics, Institute of Economics and Finance, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Boggia
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4184; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074184
Received: 20 February 2022 / Revised: 28 March 2022 / Accepted: 29 March 2022 / Published: 31 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Challenges of Sustainable Development)
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the sustainable development of agriculture in the member states of the European Union (EU). Sustainable development is the main objective of Polish agriculture. Sustainable development encompasses three pillars: economic, social and environmental. In recent years, Polish agriculture has undergone a considerable change to integrate and adapt the agricultural sector to the EU standards. The achievement of the sustainable development goals in European agriculture was evaluated based on the Eurostat data as well as the analysis of the literature. The discussion on sustainable development of agriculture is rich. However, little attention is paid to the measurement of sustainable development. Our intention was to fill in the gap in the literature and provide a method to evaluate sustainable development. The paper contributes to the measurement of sustainable development based on Hellwig’s method. The changes in sustainable agricultural development were assessed with an index that was normalized with the zero unitarization method. In the first step, descriptive statistics for the variables applied in the process of calculating the sustainable development index were analyzed. The taxonomic measure of development (TMD) was then calculated for the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. In the following stage, 27 EU member states were divided into sustainable development classes based on the mean values of the TMD for each of the three pillars of sustainability. The conducted research revealed changes between the European Union countries in terms of sustainable development. In 2018, the highest values of the sustainable development index were noted in the Netherlands, Germany, France and the United Kingdom. View Full-Text
Keywords: agriculture; sustainable development; European Union agriculture; sustainable development; European Union
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kalinowska, B.; Bórawski, P.; Bełdycka-Bórawska, A.; Klepacki, B.; Perkowska, A.; Rokicki, T. Sustainable Development of Agriculture in Member States of the European Union. Sustainability 2022, 14, 4184. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074184

AMA Style

Kalinowska B, Bórawski P, Bełdycka-Bórawska A, Klepacki B, Perkowska A, Rokicki T. Sustainable Development of Agriculture in Member States of the European Union. Sustainability. 2022; 14(7):4184. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074184

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kalinowska, Beata, Piotr Bórawski, Aneta Bełdycka-Bórawska, Bogdan Klepacki, Aleksandra Perkowska, and Tomasz Rokicki. 2022. "Sustainable Development of Agriculture in Member States of the European Union" Sustainability 14, no. 7: 4184. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074184

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