In, Out or Beyond? Waste Pickers and Policy Networks: A Story from Jardim Gramacho (Rio de Janeiro)
2. Background: State of the Art of Academic Literature and Supporting Theory
2.1. Waste-Picking and Waste Pickers in the Academic Literature
2.2. Policy Network Theory
3. Research Rationale
3.1. Methods and Materials
3.1.1. The Extended Case Study Method
- Find a good theory
- Analyse the everyday life of people within a relevant setting and identify anomalies
- Rebuild the theory (or set a research agenda) to address the anomalies
3.1.2. The Application of the Extended Case Study of Jardim Gramacho: Empirical Materials
4. The Empirical Context
But to the extended case method, context is everything: The organization or community is not an arena where such patterns are played out, but a constellation of specific individuals and relationships located in time and space who respond to, resist, and thereby ultimately influence those patterns. (p. 9).
4.1. The Brazilian Framework for Waste Management
The national Law Nº 11.107/2005 on Public Consortia to provide public service through public–public partnerships (Brazil, 2005);
The national Law Nº 11.445/2007 on the National Policy of Basic Sanitation, i.e., NPBS (Brazil, 2007);
The national Law Nº 12.305/2010 on Waste Management, i.e., the PNRS (Brazil, 2010);
The legislative Decree Nº 7404/2010, which disciplines the NPWM.
4.2. Duque de Caxias’s Waste Governance and Jardim Gramacho
5.1. Waste Pickers and the Waste Policy Network
5.1.1. Waste and Waste Picker Inclusion as a Policy Community
5.1.2. Waste and Waste Picker Inclusion as an Issue Network
5.2. Thematic Analysis of Interview Data
- the primary role of material conditions in waste picker discourses;
- the effect of collective values and class identity in waste picker organization and organizational structuI
- the transformative/emancipatory potential of political inclusion, and its impact, in terms of a specific type of institutional awareness and commitment, which I defined as “institutional stewardship”.
5.2.1. Material Conditions: Labor, Wage, and Resources
“There is a narrative that maintains sorted waste collection is expensive. I disagree. It is clear that the highest cost of waste management is with waste logistics (collection and transport) which has nothing to do with waste separation” (Interview n.3, 2019).
“We want to be hired” (Interview 1, 2019).
5.2.2. Organizational Values and Structure: Union, Collective Action, and Class Identity
“It’s like you say you can take part in a public selection or bid, so let’s prepare yourself and invest time in studying, but I do not give you the CPF (The CPF is the Individual Taxpayer Registry.)” (Interview n.3, 2019)
“they are waste pickers they only know how to collect and separate waste” (Interview n.3, 2016)
“I am the third generation of a waste picker family. My grandfather in the ’50s was already a waste picker…I am the coordinator of the Work Group on Labor and Wage of the Forum…first Labor and the Wage” (Interview, Dos Santos, July 2022).
“This is the best job and we are all passionate about it…we know we are working for sustainability…we provide an important contribution to society” (Interviews, n. 1-2, 2019).
5.2.3. Political and Institutional Stewardship: In, out or beyond the Policy Community
“the so-called waste manifesto is a form with an invoice that helps control where the waste goes. each actor involved in the cycle has to declare who is delivering this waste. for the collectors’ cooperative to be part of this cycle, its legality level must be maximum […] this is like you are going to take part in a public tender. You are ready. You studied but you have no your CPF (The Cadastro de Pessoas Físicas (CPF; Portugu“se for "Natural Persons ”egister") is the Brazilian individual taxpayer registry identification)” (Interview n.3, 2019)
“the licensing of the pole is not coIuded … many things were not working because the cooperatives were not able to legalize themselves to issue a waste manifest” (Interview n.3, 2019)
“in Jardim Gramacho many things happen illegally […] with the closing of the dump, informal relations became more difficult” (Interview n.3, 2019)
“I widen my perspective when I take part in deliberative practices in the public spaces…because I am a leader…” (Interview Dos Santos, July 2022).
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Variables||Policy Community||Issue Network|
|N. of participants[M1]||Selected number of participants||Broad open participation not fixed|
|Interest||Professional interests||Variety of interests|
|Frequency||Frequent and structured||Intermitting, random, fluctuant|
|Continuity||Rule-based (fixed) membership||Open, undefined, changeable|
|Consensus||Rooted on shared values, outcome-oriented||No formal agreement or conflicts|
|Intra-network resources||Each partner has financial resources. Information is formally exchanged||Diversity of resource availability. Information is informally exchanged|
|Intra-organization resource||Hierarchical flow through the leaders||Unruled and flat flow|
|Access and balance||Balance of power among members or legitimate unbalance||Unruled power distribution and access|
|Data Collection Method.||2016||2019||2021||2022|
|Participatory observation||Waste sorting center||Waste sorting center||Waste sorting center||Jardim Gramacho neighborhood|
|Informal conversations||Citizens |
Member of the municipal environmental council
|Activists, waste cooperative leaders, waste cooperative workers|
|Semi-structured/Unstructured Interviews||1,2: ITCP (University incubators for cooperatives);|
3: Municipal environmental alderman
4-11: 7 cooperative leaders
12: State programme officer
|1, 2: 2 cooperative leaders; |
3: 1 environmental consultant
|1,2: coop leaders||1: 1 cooperative worker|
2: 1 Communication director of Waste Picker National Movement
3: 1 Activist
4: 1 Municipal Environmental Officer
|Secondary sources and documental materials||State account court|
SNIS (national statistic system)
|Local and national blogs and news paper||Academic papers|
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Maiello, A. In, Out or Beyond? Waste Pickers and Policy Networks: A Story from Jardim Gramacho (Rio de Janeiro). Sustainability 2022, 14, 16977. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142416977
Maiello A. In, Out or Beyond? Waste Pickers and Policy Networks: A Story from Jardim Gramacho (Rio de Janeiro). Sustainability. 2022; 14(24):16977. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142416977Chicago/Turabian Style
Maiello, Antonella. 2022. "In, Out or Beyond? Waste Pickers and Policy Networks: A Story from Jardim Gramacho (Rio de Janeiro)" Sustainability 14, no. 24: 16977. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142416977