Assessment of Solid Waste Management System in Pakistan and Sustainable Model from Environmental and Economic Perspective
- Establishing public sector WMCs across Punjab province;
- Forming Sindh SWM Board;
- Water and Sanitation Services Companies in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province;
- Addition of a new fleet in Quetta, Baluchistan and Punjab;
- Outsourcing waste collection services locally and internationally in various cities.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Proposed SWM Model for Pakistan
2.2. Environmental Modelling for GHGs Emission
2.3. Economic Modelling
3.1. Performance Evaluation of SWM Model in Pakistan
3.1.1. Background Information and Key Waste Related Data
3.1.2. Analysis of Physical Components
3.1.3. Evaluation of Governance Factor
3.1.4. Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) Emission from Current Waste Disposal Practices
3.2. Proposed Sustainable SWM Model for Pakistan
- Enhancing the number of trips for existing SWM vehicles, adding some new fleet and equipment, and focusing on repair and maintenance will increase waste collection efficiency minimum at a level of more than 85%;
- Three waste streams, i.e., residential, commercial and institutional, and bulk waste for separate and dedicated waste collection arrangements, will help in quality composting and separation of precious recyclables;
- Identification of state land or procurement of land for waste transfer stations and waste treatment facilities;
- Meanwhile, it is appropriate to have interim arrangements for TCPs per a transfer station’s criteria;
- Establishment of the composting facility for 20% organic waste proportion;
- Exploration of the business model of the informal sector for its integration with the formal system.
- Identification and procurement of lands for disposal of waste;
- Establishment of an MRF to cater to 30% of recyclables;
- Arrangements for gas capturing system and flaring of GHGs from current and old dumpsites;
- Utilization of dry municipal sludge as interim soil cover at dumpsites and debris waste for infrastructure development of facilities, i.e., TCPs and disposal sites;Enhancement of MRF facility for recovery of recyclables up to 50%.
3.2.1. Environmental Sustainability of Sector
3.2.2. Recovery of Recyclables
3.2.3. Manufacturing of Compost from Organic Waste
3.2.4. Economic Sustainability of Sector
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Wasteware ISWM Benchmarking Indicators—Assessment of Eleven Major Cities of Pakistan
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|Performance Indicators||Current Model||Proposed Model|
|A. Waste collection efficiency||<75%||≥85%|
|B. Waste collection methodology||Single stream||Three dedicated streams|
|C. Waste transfer||No concept of a transfer station except metropolitan cities have temporary collection points (TCPs)||TCPs for interim arrangement and establishment of transfer station|
|D. Waste diversion options||Segregation and recycling by the informal sector||Integration of the informal sector with a formal system|
|(a) MRF||No MRF by municipalities and WMCs. The facility is available at Lahore 1||MRF with 30% and 50% recyclables|
|(b) Compost||No composting at present. The facility is available in Lahore 1||20% organic waste into compost 2|
|(c) Waste disposal||Open dumping and burning||The gas capturing system for old and current disposal sites|
|Utilization of debris and dry sludge for landfill|
|Activities||Year 1||Year 2||Year 3||Year 4||Year 5|
|Enhancement in collection efficiency (≥85%)||†||†|
|Dedicated waste collection for each stream||†|
|Arrangements for TCPs||†|
|Land availability for transfer station and treatment facility||†||†|
|Composting from organic waste (20% organic waste)||†||†||†|
|Integration of informal waste sector||†|
|Establishment of MRF (30% recyclables)||‡||‡|
|The gas capturing system at the dumpsite||‡|
|Site availability for new landfill||‡|
|Usage of sludge as an interim cover for LFS and utilization of debris waste for infrastructure development||‡|
|Enhancement of MRF facility (50% recyclables)||‡|
|Activities||Types of Actions Required||Hints|
|Adm. †||Fin. ‡||Legal||Hybrid *|
|Enhancement in collection efficiency (≥85%)||√||-||-||-||Focus on Repair and Maintenance (R&M) of fleet and digital monitoring with improved number of trips at disposal sites.|
|Dedicated waste collection for each stream||√||-||-||-||Reschedule vehicle routes and dedicated vehicles for each stream with color coding and a tracking monitoring system.|
|Arrangements for TCPs||√||-||-||-||Location in remote areas on a rental basis|
|Land availability for transfer station and treatment facility||-||-||-||√||Priority to state land, if not available, then acquire land|
|Composting from organic waste **||-||√||-||-||Built Operate and Own (BOO) mode with free waste delivery at the facility|
|Integration of informal waste sector, SWM policy, and Act||-||-||√||-||Legal framework|
|Establishment of MRF facility **||-||√||-||-||BOO mode with free waste delivery at the facility|
|The gas capturing system at the dumpsite||-||√||-||Cost-effective solutions|
|Site availability for new landfill||-||-||-||√||Regional landfill concept on state land|
|Usage of sludge as an interim cover for LFS||√||-||-||-||Dray sludge waste as interim soil cover. Water and sanitation agencies|
|Enforcement, tipping fee and integration of private entities||-||-||√||-||Source of revenue generation for WMCs|
|Product stewardship||-||-||√||-||Source of revenue generation for WMCs|
|Cost of Facility||Per Day Cost of Facility||Scenario-1|
(MRF 30% and Compost 20%)
(MRF 50% and Compost 20%)
|Cost (Rs.)/Day *||Cost (Rs.)/Ton **||Cost (Rs.)/Ton **|
|Rent of land||64,516||303||292|
|HR to operate the facility||53,065||250||240|
|Maintenance of facility||45,161||213||205|
|Total expenditure of Facility||286,832||1350||1299|
|Revenue from Sale of Recyclables and Compost||Scenario-1|
(MRF 30% and Compost 20%)
(MRF 50% and Compost 20%)
|Revenue (Rs.)/Ton||Revenue (Rs.)/Ton|
|Revenue from the sale of recyclables *||57,949||57,949|
|Revenue from the sale of compost **||8000||8000|
|Total estimated revenue (Rs.) ***||65,949||65,949|
|Revenue from Carbon Credit/Environmental Benefit||Scenarios 1 and 2|
|Carbon benefits from recyclables||673|
|Carbon benefits from compost||583|
|Carbon Benefit—Gas capturing from the dumpsite||287|
|Total revenue (Rs.) carbon credit||1543|
|Cost–Benefit Analysis *||Scenario-1||Scenario-2|
|Revenue (Rs.)/Ton||Revenue (Rs.)/Ton|
|Per ton revenue from the sale of recyclables, compost and relevant carbon benefit||22,402||22,402|
|Per ton facility cost||−1350||−1299|
|Average per ton cost–benefit analysis||21,052||21,103|
|Scenarios||Qty. of Compost and Recyclables/Annum||Economic Potential (Rs. Million)/Annum *||Operational Cost (Rs. Million) of LWMC/Annum||% (Revenue Benefit)/Annum to Cater Operational Cost|
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Iqbal, A.; Abdullah, Y.; Nizami, A.S.; Sultan, I.A.; Sharif, F. Assessment of Solid Waste Management System in Pakistan and Sustainable Model from Environmental and Economic Perspective. Sustainability 2022, 14, 12680. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912680
Iqbal A, Abdullah Y, Nizami AS, Sultan IA, Sharif F. Assessment of Solid Waste Management System in Pakistan and Sustainable Model from Environmental and Economic Perspective. Sustainability. 2022; 14(19):12680. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912680Chicago/Turabian Style
Iqbal, Asif, Yasar Abdullah, Abdul Sattar Nizami, Imran Ali Sultan, and Faiza Sharif. 2022. "Assessment of Solid Waste Management System in Pakistan and Sustainable Model from Environmental and Economic Perspective" Sustainability 14, no. 19: 12680. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912680