# Effect of Recycled Aggregate Modification on the Properties of Permeable Asphalt Concrete

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Experiment

#### 2.1. Raw Material

#### 2.2. Modification Method of RCA

#### 2.2.1. Glacial Acetic Acid and/or Sodium Silicate Solution-Modified RCA

#### 2.2.2. Polyvinyl Alcohol and/or Cement Slurry-Modified RCA

#### 2.2.3. Slag Powder and/or Silane Coupling Agent-Modified RCA

#### 2.3. Test of Aggregate Properties

#### 2.4. Performance Test of Asphalt Concrete

#### 2.4.1. Asphalt Mixture Gradation

#### 2.4.2. Adhesion Test of Asphalt and Aggregate

#### 2.4.3. Optimum Asphalt-Aggregate Ratio

_{0}is the beaker quality (g), m

_{1}is the total quality of the beaker and asphalt mixture (g), and m

_{2}represents the quality of the beaker and residue after the experiment (g).

#### 2.4.4. Water Permeability Test

_{w}represents the pavement permeability coefficient (mL/min); V

_{1}and V

_{2}represent the water volume at the first and second timings, respectively (mL); t

_{1}and t

_{2}represent the first and second timings, respectively (s).

#### 2.4.5. Water Stability Property

_{1}, immersion Marshall stability MS

_{2}, and flow value were measured using a Marshall tester. The water stability test results are shown in Figure 12.

_{0}represents the residual stability of the mixture (%), MS

_{1}represents the immersion Marshall stability of the mixture (kN), and MS

_{2}represents the Marshall stability of the mixture (kN).

#### 2.4.6. Freeze-Thaw Splitting Test

_{1}and h

_{2}of the unfrozen-thawed test blocks and frozen-thawed test blocks, respectively, were measured using a Vernier caliper. The specimen was kept in a water bath at 25 °C for 2 h and then loaded at a loading rate of 50 mm/min. The maximum splitting tensile strengths P

_{T1}(without freeze-thaw cycles) and P

_{T2}(after freeze-thaw cycles) were obtained. The splitting tensile strength of the Marshall specimen was obtained using Equation (5). The splitting tensile strength ratio (TSR) was used to evaluate the water stability of the mixture, which can be obtained using Equation (4). The test operation is illustrated in Figure 13.

_{T2}represents the average splitting tensile strength of the second group of effective specimens after freeze-thaw cycles (MPa), and $\overline{\mathrm{R}}$

_{T1}represents the average splitting tensile strength of the first group of effective specimens without freeze-thaw cycles (MPa).

_{T1}represents the splitting tensile strength of the first group of a single specimen without freeze-thaw cycles (MPa), R

_{T2}represents the splitting tensile strength of the second group of a single specimen subjected to freeze-thaw cycles (MPa), P

_{T1}represents the test load values of the first group of a single specimen (N), P

_{T2}represents the test load values of the second group of a single specimen (N), h

_{1}represents the height of each specimen in the first group (mm), and h

_{2}represents the height of each specimen in the second group (mm).

#### 2.4.7. High Temperature Rutting Test

_{1}) and 60 min (t

_{2}), the rut deformations d

_{1}and d

_{2}were read, respectively, as shown in Figure 14. The dynamic stability DS was calculated using Equation (6).

_{1}represents the deformation corresponding to time t

_{1}(mm), d

_{2}represents the deformation corresponding to time t

_{2}(mm), C

_{1}represents the test machine type coefficient (equal to 1.0 for running mode of crank connecting rod drive loading wheel ), C

_{2}represents the coefficient of specimen (equal to 1.0 for 300 mm wide specimen), and N represents the test wheel rolling speed (usually 42 times/min).

#### 2.4.8. Low-Temperature Crack-Resistance Experiment

_{T}and failure stiffness modulus S

_{T}are calculated using Equations (10) and (11).

_{T}represents the damage to tensile strain, S

_{T}represents the failure stiffness modulus (MPa), μ represents the Poisson’s ratio, P

_{T}represents the maximum load of the specimen (N), H represents the specimen height (mm), A represents the ratio of vertical to horizontal deformation of the specimen (MPa). Moreover, A = Y

_{T}/X

_{T}where Y

_{T}represents the vertical total deformation of the specimen corresponding to the maximum failure load (mm), and X

_{T}represents the total horizontal deformation of the specimen corresponding to the maximum failure load (mm).

## 3. Results and Discussions

#### 3.1. Properties of Aggregate

#### 3.1.1. Apparent Density

^{3}. Although the glacial acetic acid solution could peel old mortar from the surface of RCA [21] and improve the apparent density, it could not dissolve the old mortar completely, even making it loose and porous; therefore, the apparent density of RCA-G was insignificantly improved. Moreover, the test results show that the recycled aggregate of size 4.74–9.5 mm exhibited slightly greater apparent density than the corresponding recycled aggregate of 9.5–13.2 mm, which was mainly attributed to the larger surface area of the recycled aggregate with the smaller size.

#### 3.1.2. Water Absorption

#### 3.1.3. Crushing Value

#### 3.2. Adhesion Performance between Aggregate and Asphalt

#### 3.3. Optimum Asphalt-Aggregate Ratio

#### 3.4. Permeability Performance

#### 3.5. Water Stability Property

#### 3.5.1. Marshall Stability

#### 3.5.2. Marshall Stability of Immersion

#### 3.5.3. Residual Stability

#### 3.6. Freeze-Thaw Splitting Tensile Strength

#### 3.7. Dynamic Stability of High Temperature Rutting

#### 3.8. Low-Temperature Splitting Tensile Strength

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 3.**Schematic diagram of the double-modified RCA with acetic acid and sodium silicate solution.

**Figure 9.**Schematic diagram of the double-modified RCA soaked with slag powder and silane coupling agent.

**Figure 12.**Test process. (

**a**) Preparation of specimens; (

**b**) Constant-temperature water immersion; (

**c**) Stability measurement.

**Figure 13.**Freeze-thaw splitting test. (

**a**) Freeze-thaw test specimens; (

**b**) Immersion in constant-temperature water; (

**c**) Testing splitting strength.

**Figure 14.**High temperature rutting test. (

**a**) Preparation of specimens; (

**b**) Specimen formation; (

**c**) Dynamic stability test.

**Figure 20.**Determination of optimum asphalt-aggregate ratio. (

**a**) Determination of asphalt leakage loss; (

**b**) Asphalt loss of NCA and RCA; (

**c**) The optimal asphalt-aggregate ratio of different coarse aggregate asphalt mixtures.

Properties | Test Values | Requirements | Test Method [27] |
---|---|---|---|

Penetration (2 °C, 100 g, 5 s)/0.1 mm | 50.9 | 40~60 | T 0604 |

Penetration index PI | 0.21 | ≥0 | T 0604 |

Ductility (5 °C, 5 cm·min^{−1})/cm | 89 | ≥20 | T 0605 |

Softening point (°C) | 81.9 | ≥60 | T 0606 |

Flash point (°C) | 285 | ≥230 | T 0611 |

Viscosity (135 °C)/Pa.s | 2.4 | ≤3.0 | T 0625 |

Solubility (%) | 99.8 | ≥99 | T 0607 |

Properties | Test Values | Requirements | Test Method [28] |
---|---|---|---|

Apparent density (g/cm^{3)} | 2.64 | ≥2.5 | T 0352 |

Water content (%) | 0.36 | ≤1 | - |

Particle size<0.6 mm (%) | 100 | 100 | T 0351 |

Particle size<0.7 mm (%) | 92.5 | 90~100 | T 0351 |

Particle size<0.8 mm (%) | 87.8 | 75~100 | T 0351 |

Appearance | No Agglomerates Formed | No Agglomerates Formed | - |

Hydrophilic coefficient (%) | 0.87 | <1 | T 0353 |

Properties | Test Values | Requirements | Test Method [28] |
---|---|---|---|

Apparent density (g/cm^{3)} | 2.73 | ≥2.50 | T 0328 |

Sand content (%) | 61 | ≥60 | T 0333 |

Angularity (s) | 49 | ≥30 | T 0344 |

Paticle size <0.075 mm (%) | 1.04 | ≤3.0 | - |

Properties | Grain Size (mm) | Test Values | Test Method [28] | |
---|---|---|---|---|

NCA | RCA | |||

Apparent density (g/cm^{3}) | 4.75–9.5 | 2.70 | 2.54 | T 0304 |

9.5–13.2 | 2.68 | 2.52 | ||

Water absorption (%) | 4.75–9.5 | 0.99 | 8.73 | |

9.5–13.2 | 0.91 | 7.89 | ||

Crushing value (%) | 9.5–13.2 | 14.21 | 21.54 | T 0316 |

Grain Size (mm) | NCA | RCA | RCA-G | RCA-S | RCA-GS | RCA-P | RCA-C | RCA-PC | RCA-SL | RCA-SC | RCA-SLSC | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Apparent density (g/cm ^{3}) | 4.75–9.5 | 2.70 | 2.54 | 2.56 | 2.66 | 2.70 | 2.66 | 2.58 | 2.68 | 2.62 | 2.67 | 2.72 |

9.5–13.2 | 2.68 | 2.52 | 2.54 | 2.62 | 2.67 | 2.63 | 2.57 | 2.63 | 2.59 | 2.63 | 2.68 | |

Water absorption (%) | 4.75–9.5 | 0.99 | 8.73 | 6.26 | 5.34 | 5.7 | 6.83 | 11.65 | 11.57 | 6.06 | 5.63 | 5.38 |

9.5–13.2 | 0.91 | 7.89 | 4.35 | 4.77 | 3.23 | 4.27 | 8.83 | 8.35 | 4.24 | 3.85 | 3.44 | |

Crushing value (%) | 9.5–13.2 | 14.21 | 21.54 | 17.19 | 17.67 | 16.30 | 17.21 | 18.86 | 16.72 | 16.96 | 17.36 | 16.54 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Lei, B.; Xiong, Q.; Tang, Z.; Yao, Z.; Jiang, J.
Effect of Recycled Aggregate Modification on the Properties of Permeable Asphalt Concrete. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 10495.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su141710495

**AMA Style**

Lei B, Xiong Q, Tang Z, Yao Z, Jiang J.
Effect of Recycled Aggregate Modification on the Properties of Permeable Asphalt Concrete. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(17):10495.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su141710495

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Lei, Bin, Qianghui Xiong, Zhuo Tang, Zhimin Yao, and Jianguo Jiang.
2022. "Effect of Recycled Aggregate Modification on the Properties of Permeable Asphalt Concrete" *Sustainability* 14, no. 17: 10495.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su141710495