# Risk Monitoring Level of Stope Slopes and Landslides in High-Altitude and Cold Mines

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Study Area

## 3. Evaluation Model

#### 3.1. Analysis of Slope Deformation Index in Cold Areas

#### 3.2. Analysis of Risk Factors for Slope Landslides in Cold Areas

#### 3.3. Computational Theories of Unascertained Measure Models

_{ij}= a

_{ij}/100 represents the unascertained measure of the impact Factor I, so U

_{ij}={a

_{i}

_{1}, a

_{i}

_{2}, a

_{ip}} (I = 1, 2, …, n). U

_{ij}is the unascertained measure matrix, as shown in Equation (4).

_{ij}is the importance degree of b

_{i}and b

_{j}relative to the element at the higher level).

_{k}= U(a

_{i}∈ ek) be the degree to which each impact factor of the evaluation object is at the k-th evaluation level, as shown in Equations (5) and (6):

_{k}≤ 1 and ${\sum}_{k=1}^{p}{u}_{k}}=1$.

#### 3.4. Evaluation of Risk Monitoring Level of Slope and Landslides in Cold Areas

_{1}, B

_{2}, B

_{3}, B

_{4}is constructed, as shown below.

_{1max}= 3.1078, CI = 0.054, RI = 0.58, CR = 0.093 < 0.1;

_{2max}= 2, CI = 0, RI = 0;

_{3max}= 5.2896, CI = 0.072, RI = 1.21, R = 0.060 < 0.1;

_{4max}= 2, CI = 0, RI = 0.

## 4. Results and Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

- The long-term freeze–thaw cycle will inevitably affect the slope’s geological condition index, which will lead to slope instability, so it is appropriate to introduce the freeze–thaw cycle coefficient ζ to correct the slope deformation index in cold regions.
- The factors affecting the risk of landslides in cold regions are slope, slope height, groundwater, earthquake, freeze–thaw cycle, uniaxial compressive strength of rock, and degree of weathering.
- The calculation results of the theoretical model of the calculation of the uncertain measurement show that the landslide risk monitoring level of the Dongbang slope is Class II, indicating that the slope in the cold area has the possibility of a slight landslide risk. The main factors leading to slight landslide risk should be the uniaxial compressive strength, freeze–thaw cycle effect, geometric factors, and lithology of the rock mass.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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Target Layer | Criterion Layer | Weights | Index | Scheme Layer Weight |
---|---|---|---|---|

Evaluation of Risk Grade of Slope Landslide in Cold Area A | B_{1} | 0.124 | C_{11} | 0.500 |

C12 | 0.500 | |||

B_{2} | 0.517 | C21 | 0.075 | |

C22 | 0.094 | |||

C23 | 0.178 | |||

C24 | 0.130 | |||

C25 | 0.523 | |||

B_{3} | 0.359 | C31 | 0.800 | |

C32 | 0.200 |

Order p | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

RI | 0 | 0 | 0.58 | 0.9 | 1.21 | 1.24 | 1.32 | 1.41 | 1.45 |

Grade | Grade I | Grade II | Grade III | Grade IV |
---|---|---|---|---|

Score | 90–100 | 75–89 | 60–74 | 0–59 |

Impact Factor | Grade I | Grade II | Grade III | Grade IV |
---|---|---|---|---|

Slope | 40 | 40 | 20 | 0 |

Slope height | 50 | 30 | 20 | 0 |

Earthquake impact | 40 | 40 | 20 | 0 |

Groundwater impact | 30 | 35 | 20 | 15 |

Annual rainfall | 35 | 35 | 25 | 5 |

Manual activity | 40 | 30 | 20 | 10 |

Freeze–thaw cycle effects | 10 | 60 | 30 | 0 |

Rock uniaxial compressive strength | 20 | 50 | 30 | 0 |

Degree of weathering | 30 | 20 | 40 | 10 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhang, R.; Wu, S.; Xie, C.; Chen, Q.
Risk Monitoring Level of Stope Slopes and Landslides in High-Altitude and Cold Mines. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 7581.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137581

**AMA Style**

Zhang R, Wu S, Xie C, Chen Q.
Risk Monitoring Level of Stope Slopes and Landslides in High-Altitude and Cold Mines. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(13):7581.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137581

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhang, Ruichong, Shiwei Wu, Chengyu Xie, and Qingfa Chen.
2022. "Risk Monitoring Level of Stope Slopes and Landslides in High-Altitude and Cold Mines" *Sustainability* 14, no. 13: 7581.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137581