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Review

The Possible Impact of COVID-19 on Respiratory Muscles Structure and Functions: A Literature Review

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Department of Health Promotion and Rehabilitation, Lithuanian Sports University, 44221 Kaunas, Lithuania
2
Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd University Hospital, 182 57 Stockholm, Sweden
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Department of Rehabilitation of the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania
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Department of Physical Rehabilitation Medicine, Kaunas Clinic of the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania
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Faculty of Medicine, Marche Polytechnic University, 60121 Ancona, Italy
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Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy
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Posturalab Research Institute, 90143 Palermo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gianpiero Greco
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7446; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127446
Received: 1 May 2022 / Revised: 10 June 2022 / Accepted: 14 June 2022 / Published: 17 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Training, the Pandemic and Sustainable Living)
The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on respiratory muscle functions is an important area of recent enquiry. COVID-19 has effects on the respiratory muscles. The diaphragm muscle is perturbed indirectly due to the mechanical-ventilation-induced-disuse, but also by direct mechanisms linked with SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. In this sense, a deeper understanding of the possible links between COVID-19 and alterations in structure and functions of the respiratory muscles may increase the success rate of preventive and supportive strategies. Ultrasound imaging alongside respiratory muscle strength tests and pulmonary function assessment are valid approaches to the screening and monitoring of disease, for mild to severe patients. The aim of the present review is to highlight the current literature regarding the links between COVID-19 and respiratory muscle functions. We examine from the pathophysiological aspects of disease, up to approaches taken to monitor and rehabilitate diseased muscle. We hope this work will add to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology and disease management of respiratory muscle pathology subsequent to SARS-CoV-2 infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: diaphragm muscle; respiratory functions; COVID-19; rehabilitation; SARS-CoV-2 diaphragm muscle; respiratory functions; COVID-19; rehabilitation; SARS-CoV-2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cesanelli, L.; Satkunskiene, D.; Bileviciute-Ljungar, I.; Kubilius, R.; Repečkaite, G.; Cesanelli, F.; Iovane, A.; Messina, G. The Possible Impact of COVID-19 on Respiratory Muscles Structure and Functions: A Literature Review. Sustainability 2022, 14, 7446. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127446

AMA Style

Cesanelli L, Satkunskiene D, Bileviciute-Ljungar I, Kubilius R, Repečkaite G, Cesanelli F, Iovane A, Messina G. The Possible Impact of COVID-19 on Respiratory Muscles Structure and Functions: A Literature Review. Sustainability. 2022; 14(12):7446. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127446

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cesanelli, Leonardo, Danguole Satkunskiene, Indre Bileviciute-Ljungar, Raimondas Kubilius, Gintare Repečkaite, Federico Cesanelli, Angelo Iovane, and Giuseppe Messina. 2022. "The Possible Impact of COVID-19 on Respiratory Muscles Structure and Functions: A Literature Review" Sustainability 14, no. 12: 7446. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127446

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