# Design and Test of Elastic Tooth Type Lateral Straw Clearing Roller Based on the Straw Clearing and Mulching No-Tillage Precision Planter

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^{2}

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## Abstract

**:**

^{2}. Through the comparative test of the elastic tooth and rigid tooth type lateral straw clearing roller, there was no significant difference in the straw clearing rate between the two, but there were significant differences in the power consumption and vibration intensity. The elastic tooth type lateral straw cleaning roller reduced power consumption by 63.3% and vibration intensity by 43.2%.

## 1. Introduction

^{2}. Based on the above analysis, it can be seen that the current research on lateral straw clearing and mulching technology mainly takes rigid tooth type lateral straw clearing roller as the research object, and the value range and combination of influencing factors such as the arrangement mode, number, rotational speed and edge curve of rigid teeth are optimized to reduce soil disturbance, power consumption and vibration.

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Design of the Elastic Tooth Type Lateral Straw Clearing Roller

#### 2.1.1. The Overall Scheme of the Elastic Tooth Type Straw Clearing and Mulching No-Tillage Precision Planter

#### 2.1.2. Structure and Operation Principle of the Elastic Tooth Type Lateral Straw Clearing Roller

#### 2.1.3. Force Analysis of the Elastic Tooth

_{N}is the positive pressure of the tooth rod on the straw, N; θ is the total deformation angle of the elastic tooth, rad; f

_{1}is the friction force of the tooth rod on the straw, N; f

_{2}is the friction force of the ground on the straw, N; N is the supporting force of the ground on the straw, N; m is the quality of the straw, kg; θ

_{1}is the torsion deformation angle, rad; θ

_{2}is the bending deformation angle, rad; l is the length of tooth rod, mm; E is the elastic modulus of the elastic tooth, MPa; d

_{0}is the elastic tooth wire diameter, mm; z is the winding number of the torsion springs; D

_{0}is the screw pitch diameter of the torsion spring, mm; μ

_{1}is the friction coefficient between the tooth rod and the straw; μ

_{2}is the friction coefficient between the soil and the straw.

#### 2.1.4. Kinematics Analysis of the Elastic Tooth

_{0}is the rotation radius of the roller, mm; h is the clearance of roller center from ground, mm; ω is the angular velocity of roller, rad/s; t

_{0}is the time when point A first makes contact with the ground, s; t

_{1}is the time when point A is at the center line of the roller, s; t

_{2}is the time when the line between point A and the center of the pin shaft is perpendicular to the ground, s; α

_{0}is the starting angle, rad.

#### 2.1.5. Design of the Elastic Tooth

_{1}is the included angle between the BC rod and y axis when point A is located at the origin of coordinates, rad.

_{b}is the curvature coefficient of bending stress; [σ] is the allowable stress, MPa.

#### 2.1.6. Arrangement of Elastic Teeth

_{1}is the disturbed straw amount per unit time, kg/s; K

_{1}is sraw joint coefficient; v

_{m}is the forward speed, m/s; W is the straw clearing width, mm; m

_{1}is the straw mulching amount per unit area, kg/m

^{2}; M

_{0}is the straw quantity in the straw clearing width, kg/s.

_{2}is the straw discharge amount per unit time, kg/s; K

_{2}is coefficient of moving speed (K

_{2}< 1); R is the rotary radius of the elastic tooth, mm; l

_{2}is the axial operation length of the lateral straw clearing roller, mm.

_{1}is the circumferential number of elastic teeth in single row; z

_{2}is the axial row number of elastic teeth.

#### 2.2. Parameter Combination Improvement Test

#### 2.2.1. Test Condition

^{2}and water content was 20.7%. The average straw mulching amount was 1.28 kg/m

^{2}, stubble height was 273 mm and crushed straw length was 90 mm.

#### 2.2.2. Instrument and Equipment

#### 2.2.3. Test Scheme

_{27}(3

^{13}) orthogonal table to design the test. The length of tooth rod, the clearance of roller center from ground, the circumferential number of elastic teeth and the angular velocity of roller were taken as test factors, and straw clearing rate, power consumption and vibration intensity were taken as evaluation indexes. Each group of test treatment was repeated for 3 times, and a total of 27 groups of tests were carried out. Design-Expert 6.0.10 software was used to process and analyze the data of the test results [18]. The level of test factors is shown in Table 1, and the test scheme is shown in Table 2.

_{h}is the corn straw quality after operation of each measuring point, kg; W

_{q}is the corn straw quality after operation of each measuring point, kg.

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Influence Analysis of Various Test Factors on Straw Clearing Rate

#### 3.2. Influence Analysis of Various Test Factors on Power Consumption

#### 3.3. Influence Analysis of Various Test Factors on Vibration Intensity

#### 3.4. Improvements in Parameter Combination

^{2}, Design-expert 6.0.10 software was used for optimization, and the optimization combination results of the structure and working parameters of the elastic tooth type lateral straw clearing roller were shown in Table 4. The field validation test was conducted according to the improved parameter combination, and the tests were repeated for three times, with the results shown in Table 4. Each evaluation index value conformed to the optimization principle and practical operation requirements, which proved that the optimization results were credible.

^{2}and 90%, 4.5 kW, 148 m/s

^{2}, respectively. Compared with rigid tooth type lateral straw clearing roller, the power consumption and vibration intensity of the elastic tooth type lateral straw clearing roller were reduced by 63.3% and 43.2%, respectively, which showed that the elastic tooth structure could reduce the consumption and vibration significantly in straw clearing process.

## 4. Conclusions

- (1)
- As for the straw clearing rate, all the test factors and the interaction between the length of tooth rod and the clearance of roller center from ground have extremely significant effects on the test results, and the influence order from the largest to the smallest is the length of tooth rod, the angular velocity of roller, the clearance of roller center from ground, and the circumferential number of elastic teeth. As for the power consumption, all the test factors have extremely significant effects on the test results, and the influence order from the largest to the smallest is the length of tooth rod, the angular velocity of roller, the circumferential number of elastic teeth and the clearance of roller center from ground. As for the vibration intensity, the length of tooth rod, the circumferential number of elastic teeth and the angular velocity of roller have extremely significant effects on the test results, while the clearance of roller center from ground has no significant effect on the test results, and the influence order from the largest to the smallest is the angular velocity of roller, the angular velocity of roller, the length of tooth rod and the clearance of roller center from ground.
- (2)
- Under the condition of 7.2 km/h forward speed, when the length of tooth rod was 270 mm, the clearance of roller center from ground was 360 mm, the circumferential number of elastic teeth was 8, and the angular velocity of roller was 52 rad/s, the straw clearing rate was more than 90%, the power consumption was less than 1.7 kW, and the vibration intensity was less than 85 m/s
^{2}. Compared with rigid tooth type lateral straw clearing roller, there was no significant difference in straw clearing rate of the elastic tooth type lateral straw clearing roller, but the power consumption and vibration intensity had significant differences and were reduced by 63.3% and 43.2%, respectively.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Nomenclature

F_{N} | Positive pressure of the tooth rod on the straw | N |

θ | Total deformation angle of the elastic tooth | rad |

f_{1} | Friction force of the tooth rod on the straw | N |

f_{2} | Friction force of the ground on the straw | N |

N | Supporting force of the ground on the straw | N |

m | Quality of the straw | kg |

θ_{1} | Torsion deformation angle | rad |

θ_{2} | Bending deformation angle | rad |

l | Length of the tooth rod | mm |

E | Elastic modulus of the elastic tooth | MPa |

d_{0} | Elastic tooth wire diameter | mm |

z | Winding number of the torsion springs | |

D_{0} | Screw pitch diameter of the torsion spring | mm |

μ_{1} | Friction coefficient between the tooth rod and the straw | |

μ_{2} | Friction coefficient between the soil and the straw | |

x | Displacement amount of the end of the tooth rod | mm |

l_{0} | Rotation radius of the roller | mm |

h | Clearance of the roller center from ground | mm |

ω | Angular velocity of the roller | rad/s |

t_{0} | Time when point A first makes contact with the ground | s |

t_{1} | Time when point A is at the center line of the roller | s |

t_{2} | Time when the line between point A and the center of the pin shaft is perpendicular to the ground | s |

α_{0} | Starting angle | rad |

β | The included angle between the tooth rod and the ground surface | rad |

α_{1} | Included angle between the BC rod and y axis when point A is located at the origin of coordinates | rad |

[θ] | Allowable total deformation angle | rad |

K_{b} | Curvature coefficient of bending stress | |

[σ] | Allowable stress | MPa |

M_{1} | Disturbed straw amount per unit time | kg/s |

K_{1} | Sraw joint coefficient | |

v_{m} | Forward speed | m/s |

W | Straw clearing width | mm |

m_{1} | Straw mulching amount per unit area | kg/m^{2} |

M_{0} | Straw quantity in the straw clearing width | kg/s |

M_{2} | Straw amount per unit time | kg/s |

K_{2} | Coefficient of moving speed | |

R | Rotary radius of the elastic tooth | mm |

l_{2} | Axial operation length of the lateral straw clearing roller | mm |

z_{1} | Circumferential number of elastic teeth in single row | |

z_{2} | Axial row number of elastic teeth | |

J | Straw clearing rate | % |

W_{h} | Corn straw quality after operation of each measuring point | kg |

W_{q} | Corn straw quality after operation of each measuring point | kg |

T | Average torque of the power output shaft | N·m |

n | Average rotation speed of the power output shaft | rpm |

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**Figure 1.**Overall scheme of the elastic tooth type straw clearing and mulching no-tillage precision planter. (

**a**) Elastic tooth type straw clearing and mulching no tillage precision planter; (

**b**) operation principle of straw clearing and mulching; (

**c**) operation process of the elastic tooth type straw clearing and mulching no-tillage precision planter.

**Figure 2.**Structure and operation principle of the elastic tooth type lateral straw clearing roller. (

**a**) Structure of the elastic tooth type lateral straw clearing roller; (

**b**) operation principle of the elastic tooth type lateral straw clearing roller.

**Figure 4.**Three processes of the elastic tooth motion. (

**a**) Pressurization torsion process; (

**b**) decompression torsion process; (

**c**) ejection process.

**Figure 5.**The connection of instruments and equipment and field test. (

**a**) The connection of instruments and equipment used in the test; (

**b**) field test; (

**c**) measurement of straw clearing rate.

**Figure 6.**Influence of various test factors on performance evaluation indexes of the elastic tooth. (

**a**) Influence of various test factors on straw clearing rate; (

**b**) influence of various test factors on power consumption; (

**c**) influence of various test factors on vibration intensity.

**Figure 7.**Lateral straw clearing rollers for comparative test (

**a**) Elastic tooth type lateral straw clearing roller; (

**b**) rigid tooth type lateral straw clearing roller.

Level | Factors | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

The Length of Tooth Rod l/mm | The Clearance of Roller Center from Ground h/mm | The Circumferential Number of Elastic Teeth z _{1} | The Angular Velocity of Roller ω/(rad·s ^{−1}) | |

1 | 240 | 340 | 4 | 42.0 |

2 | 270 | 360 | 6 | 52.5 |

3 | 300 | 380 | 8 | 63.0 |

Test No. | l/mm | h/mm | z_{1} | ω/(rad·s^{−1}) | Straw Clearing Rate/% | Power Consumption/kW | Vibration Intensity/(m·s^{−2}) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 240 | 340 | 6 | 42 | 71 | 1.21 | 60.5 |

2 | 240 | 340 | 7 | 52 | 76 | 1.52 | 76.0 |

3 | 240 | 340 | 8 | 62 | 81 | 1.78 | 89.0 |

4 | 240 | 360 | 6 | 52 | 70 | 1.31 | 65.5 |

5 | 240 | 360 | 7 | 62 | 78 | 1.72 | 86.0 |

6 | 240 | 360 | 8 | 42 | 72 | 1.31 | 65.5 |

7 | 240 | 380 | 6 | 62 | 68 | 1.52 | 76.0 |

8 | 240 | 380 | 7 | 42 | 60 | 1.18 | 59.0 |

9 | 240 | 380 | 8 | 52 | 68 | 1.53 | 76.5 |

10 | 270 | 340 | 6 | 52 | 71 | 1.32 | 66.0 |

11 | 270 | 340 | 7 | 62 | 78 | 1.81 | 90.5 |

12 | 270 | 340 | 8 | 42 | 73 | 1.42 | 71.0 |

13 | 270 | 360 | 6 | 62 | 94 | 1.70 | 85.0 |

14 | 270 | 360 | 7 | 42 | 84 | 1.43 | 71.5 |

15 | 270 | 360 | 8 | 52 | 93 | 1.67 | 83.5 |

16 | 270 | 380 | 6 | 42 | 72 | 1.21 | 60.5 |

17 | 270 | 380 | 7 | 52 | 81 | 1.52 | 76.0 |

18 | 270 | 380 | 8 | 62 | 87 | 1.79 | 89.5 |

19 | 300 | 340 | 6 | 62 | 73 | 1.82 | 91.0 |

20 | 300 | 340 | 7 | 42 | 67 | 1.52 | 76.0 |

21 | 300 | 340 | 8 | 52 | 70 | 1.91 | 95.5 |

22 | 300 | 360 | 6 | 42 | 64 | 1.43 | 71.5 |

23 | 300 | 360 | 7 | 52 | 74 | 1.71 | 85.5 |

24 | 300 | 360 | 8 | 62 | 78 | 1.97 | 98.5 |

25 | 300 | 380 | 6 | 52 | 91 | 1.43 | 71.5 |

26 | 300 | 380 | 7 | 62 | 93 | 1.63 | 81.5 |

27 | 300 | 380 | 8 | 42 | 84 | 1.47 | 73.5 |

Evaluation Indexes | Source | Sum of Squares | df | Mean Square | F | p | Significance |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Straw clearing rate | Model | 2156.88 | 12 | 179.74 | 47.71 | <0.0001 | |

l | 442.29 | 2 | 221.14 | 58.70 | <0.0001 | ** | |

h | 153.85 | 2 | 76.92 | 20.41 | <0.0001 | ** | |

z_{1} | 56.96 | 2 | 28.48 | 7.56 | 0.0059 | ** | |

ω | 384.96 | 2 | 192.48 | 51.09 | <0.0001 | ** | |

l × h | 1118.81 | 4 | 279.70 | 74.24 | <0.0001 | ** | |

Error | 52.74 | 14 | 3.76 | ||||

Cor Total | 2209.62 | 26 | |||||

Power consumption | Model | 1.16 | 8 | 0.14 | 26.70 | <0.0001 | |

l | 0.18 | 2 | 0.09 | 16.80 | <0.0001 | ** | |

h | 0.07 | 2 | 0.03 | 6.81 | 0.0062 | ** | |

z_{1} | 0.20 | 2 | 0.10 | 18.54 | <0.0001 | ** | |

ω | 0.70 | 2 | 0.35 | 64.65 | <0.0001 | ** | |

Error | 0.09 | 18 | 0.01 | ||||

Cor Total | 1.26 | 26 | |||||

Vibration intensity | Model | 2765.77 | 6 | 460.96 | 20.60 | <0.0001 | |

l | 445.40 | 2 | 222.70 | 9.95 | 0.0010 | ** | |

z_{1} | 499.85 | 2 | 249.92 | 11.17 | 0.0006 | ** | |

ω | 1820.51 | 2 | 910.25 | 40.69 | <0.0001 | ** | |

Error | 447.40 | 20 | 22.37 | ||||

Cor Total | 3213.18 | 26 |

Improved Parameter Combination | Straw Clearing Rate/% | Power Consumption/kW | Vibration Intensity/(m·s ^{−2}) | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

The Length of Tooth Rod l/mm | The Clearance of Roller Center from Ground h/mm | The Circumferential Number of Elastic Teeth z _{1} | The Angular Velocity of Roller ω/(rad·s ^{−1}) | |||

270 | 360 | 8 | 52 | 92 | 1.65 | 83 |

93 | 1.62 | 82 | ||||

92 | 1.67 | 85 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Hou, S.; Zhu, Y.; Ji, Z.; Zhu, X.; Zhou, C.
Design and Test of Elastic Tooth Type Lateral Straw Clearing Roller Based on the Straw Clearing and Mulching No-Tillage Precision Planter. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 7238.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127238

**AMA Style**

Hou S, Zhu Y, Ji Z, Zhu X, Zhou C.
Design and Test of Elastic Tooth Type Lateral Straw Clearing Roller Based on the Straw Clearing and Mulching No-Tillage Precision Planter. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(12):7238.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127238

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Hou, Shouyin, Yifan Zhu, Zhangchi Ji, Xiaoxin Zhu, and Cheng Zhou.
2022. "Design and Test of Elastic Tooth Type Lateral Straw Clearing Roller Based on the Straw Clearing and Mulching No-Tillage Precision Planter" *Sustainability* 14, no. 12: 7238.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127238