Systematic Review: Preventive Intervention to Curb the Youth Online Gambling Problem
1.1. Online Problem Gambling in Adolescents
- The individual level, which would include: (a) personality traits. These are understood as the values that define a person. Some authors have observed that high levels of impulsivity correlate positively with a high predisposition toward gambling and correlate negatively with emotional intelligence . (b) Risk perception: these are defined as the ability to perceive gambling and betting as an action with possible negative consequences. Several studies have observed that those adolescents with a higher risk perception toward online gambling would have a lesser intention to gamble . (c) Illusion of control: these are cognitive distortions generated by the gambling companies themselves, which bias the probability of winning beliefs, encouraging the gambler’s fallacy. Increased knowledge of probability calculations in teenagers has been found to be associated with lower risk-taking behavior in gambling .
- The microsocial level, which would include: (a) family. Parental permissiveness toward gambling indicates that poor parental supervision is associated with the emergence and consolidation of gambling behavior in children . (b) Peer pressure: this is understood as the influence on a person exerted by close individuals with similar characteristics. Adolescents would be directly influenced by their close friends who have already placed some kind of bet.
- The macrosocial level, which would include: (a) publicity. Adolescents’ access to the Internet leads to an influx of excessive advertising, causing both positive and negative attitudes toward gambling . (b) Accessibility: closely related to the previous point, it has been shown by many authors that a high percentage of accessibility correlates with a risky attitude toward online gambling .
1.2. Online Gambling: Educational Preventive Intervention
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Search Strategy
2.2. Data Extraction
2.3. Inclusion Criteria
2.4. Selection of Studies
2.5. Analysis of Selected Data
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Authors||Country||Description||Type of Intervention||n||x||Evaluation Tools||Results|
|||USA||Stacked Deck is a pre-post assessment program that consists of five to six interactive lessons that are geared toward teaching the history of the game, the true odds and the “house edge,” the misconceptions of the game, the signs, risk factors, and causes of gambling problems; and the skills to make good decisions and solve problems.||Comprehensive psychoeducational prevention and skills training programs|
|949||16||Four months after the program, the students showed: |
|||Romania||A pre- and post-evaluation program that tries to compare the effectiveness of a preventive intervention of rational emotive education, using as an aid the interactive software “Amazing Chateau,” with a program exclusively formed of rational emotive education.|
-G.C = Group without any intervention.
AC + REE = Group with 10 weekly meetings of 50 min each, with 2 specialists in pathological gambling: a psychologist and a psychiatrist. The software consists of interactive games to raise awareness of pathological gambling, how to lose money and the impossibility of predicting the outcome.
REE = Group exclusively with 10 weekly meetings of 50 min each, with 2 specialists in pathological gambling: a psychologist and a psychiatrist.
|C. G.= 23|
AC + REE = 24
REE = 28
|12.5||Questionnaire on erroneous beliefs about gambling from: Teacher’s Manual: Youth Gambling Awareness and Prevention Program, Level II, “Hooked City”||Both experimental groups had significant results with respect to the control group, reducing the erroneous beliefs about gambling.|
However, the AC + REE group obtained better results than the REE group.
|||Germany||An education and preventive intervention, conducting a cluster randomized control trial with two arms (intervention group vs. control group). The intervention group received four sessions of one and a half hours each:||Psychoeducational pre-intervention|
|2109||12.0||In all, 30% percent of the sample reported having ever played; 6.7% classified themselves as current players.|
The results shown in the CG were:
|||Spain||A regional prevention program that is characterized by being exclusively two sessions, taught by experts in psychology, with the aim of teaching the techniques of the various companies to induce gambling behavior.||Psychoeducational pre-intervention|
|2372||16.5||After the administration of intervention, significant reductions were observed in:|
|||Romania||To compare the influence of specific primary prevention with rational emotive education in a pre-post study.|
The experimental design randomly assigned students into three groups: (1) control, (2) game-specific information using the ‘‘Amazing Chateau’’ interactive software, and (3) game-specific information with REE.
|C.G. = 24|
AC = 29
REE = 28
|13.0||Questionnaire on erroneous beliefs about gambling from: Teacher’s Manual: Youth Gambling Awareness and Prevention Program, Level II, “Hooked City”||The use of the software significantly improved the subjects’ knowledge of the game and corrected their information about the game’s operation.|
The results of the study confirmed that the use of specific primary prevention tools to change misconceptions about games is more effective than the use of OER alone.
|||Switzerland||This study examines the impact of a preventive intervention on the social representations of men who do not gamble, in an attempt to reduce stereotypes and provide a more holistic perspective on this issue.||Psychoeducational pre-intervention|
|475||19||Social Representation Scale (Tomeil, Richter1, 2019)||The results showed |
|||Spain||An evaluation of the “cubilete” program in secondary and high school students. It consists of 4 sessions of 50 min each, spread over 4 weeks. Sessions led by specialist psychologists, in addition to presenting videos of real cases in order to raise awareness among participants about the risks of the abusive use of ICT, online games, and virtual gambling.||¡Psychoeducational pre-intervention|
|637||X||The results showed:|
|||Canada||A prevention program that aims to reduce the problem of adolescents addicted to gambling. To this end, an experimental group was formed that would be included in their school curriculum with a series of lesson plans, transparencies, a text, and a CD-ROM prepared for the study, discussion questions, and some other demonstration materials. A control group received nothing, only pre- and post-evaluation.||Comprehensive psychoeducational prevention and skills training programs|
|E. G. = 100|
C. G. = 101
|16.5||The results showed:|
|||Canada||A program examining the preventive effects of an animation-based video that aims to educate participants about the operation of slot machines, the wisdom of setting financial limits, and strategies to avoid problems in students without addiction problems, who were randomly assigned to watch a video or animation.||Psychoeducational pre-intervention|
|242||X||The results showed: |
|||Italy||A program that evaluates the effectiveness of a prevention program in which the intervention group receives online classes related to gambling awareness.||Psychoeducational pre-intervention|
|E. G. = 95|
C. G. = 73
|15||The results showed:|
|||Portugal||A pre–post study to evaluate the efficacy of an integrative intervention to prevent youth problem gambling based on a multidimensional set of factors, including gambling-related knowledge, misconceptions, attitudes, frequency of gambling, amount of money spent, total hours spent gambling per week, and sensation seeking.||Psychoeducational pre-intervention|
|E. G. = 56|
C. G. = 55
|17||The intervention was:|
|||Croatia||To evaluate the effectiveness of the national “Who really wins? (Who really wins?).” The program consists of 9 workshops with students, usually over 9 weeks (once a week for 45 min). The overall aim of this program is to prevent and/or delay involvement in gambling activities and to contribute to personally responsible gambling behavior.||Comprehensive psychoeducational prevention and skills training programs|
|629||15.67||The program was:|
|||Italy||A pre–post study, evaluating the efficacy of an integrative intervention to prevent pathological gambling among adolescents by targeting a multidimensional set of factors, including gambling-related knowledge and misconceptions, economic perception of gambling, and superstitious thinking.||Psychoeducational pre-intervention|
|181||15.95||The results showed:|
|||USA||An evaluation of the national pre-post program “Don’t Gamble Away our Future (DGAOF),” which features 60-min sessions that mix teaching, interactive discussions, and games. The research compares those who receive a single session with those who receive multiple sessions.||Psychoeducational pre-intervention|
|16.262||14.05||The results showed: |
|||Italy||A study that evaluates the teacher training prevention program through two groups, an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group receives expert talks, debates, exercises, and group reflections in each session, as a way of detecting and preventing gambling addiction in their students.|
Students are evaluated pre-post sessions between the four sessions by the teacher.
|T. = 33|
S = 393
|x||Teachers who received training were better able to recognize misconceptions about gambling and the links between gambling and other risky behaviors. They were also better able to recognize gambling advertisements.|
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Giménez Lozano, J.M.; Morales Rodríguez, F.M. Systematic Review: Preventive Intervention to Curb the Youth Online Gambling Problem. Sustainability 2022, 14, 6402. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116402
Giménez Lozano JM, Morales Rodríguez FM. Systematic Review: Preventive Intervention to Curb the Youth Online Gambling Problem. Sustainability. 2022; 14(11):6402. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116402Chicago/Turabian Style
Giménez Lozano, José Miguel, and Francisco Manuel Morales Rodríguez. 2022. "Systematic Review: Preventive Intervention to Curb the Youth Online Gambling Problem" Sustainability 14, no. 11: 6402. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116402