2. Emerging Use of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles
3. Carbon Footprint Methodologies for HFCVs and EVs
3.1. Process-Based Life Cycle Assessment of Vehicles
- Product identification: determine the automotive product to be evaluated and analyse its specifications based on its list of components and bill of materials.
- Process mapping of multiple manufacturing sites: identify and map the life cycle process of the automotive product and its whole supply chain across various suppliers, manufacturing sites, distributors, and retailers.
- Data collection and computation: measure the direct and indirect carbon emissions at each stage of the life cycle, collect the relevant data on carbon emissions and calculate the direct and indirect carbon emissions from the supply chain throughout the life cycle of the automotive product.
- Distribution logistics, consumer usage analysis, after-sales, and repair service analysis: analyze the emissions produced during the product’s dynamic distribution and transport along the supply chain and its usage by consumers from purchase, storage, repair, and maintenance to disposal and recycling.
- Data aggregation and reporting: select appropriate computed figures on the direct and indirect emissions released during each stage of the supply chain in the life cycle of the automotive product and calculate the carbon emitted per functional unit of each automotive product.
3.2. The GREET Model
= VC1 + VC2 + VC3 + VC4 + VC5
4. Case Analysis of Carbon Footprint of HFCVs and EVs
5. Comparison of ICEVs, EVs, and HFCVs
5.1. Functional Comparison
5.2. Defining Scope and Goal of Analysis
- The fuel production phase represents the average emissions produced during the four phases of GREET1 before vehicle operation (FC1 to FC4 in Figure 3), from either one of the two hydrogen production pathways, i.e., natural gas and renewable electrolysis.
- The CO2 emission figures of the fuel consumption phase (i.e., the vehicle operation phase in GREET1) are provided in the reports.
5.3. Fuel Cycle (GREET1)
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Alternatives to Li-ion Batteries||Batteries||Fuel Cell|
|Current technological roadblocks|
|Potential timing for automotive||2025–2030 and beyond||2025–2030 and beyond||2025–2030 and beyond||~2025||2025–2030 and beyond|
|Manufacturing Phase Emissions for Model 3|
|Activities Examined||Activities Not Examined|
|Use Phase Emissions for Model 3|
|Safety considerations||Explosion limit 1.2–7.1% (Note 1)||Risk of battery explosion||Possible gas leakage. Explosion limit 4–75%||Very safety–release on demand. No explosion limits|
|Charging or refueling time||3–5 min||5 h||3–5 min||<1 min|
(for a car with a tank of 6 L)
(for a car with a tank of 5 L)
(for a car with a tank of 10 L)
|Well-To-Tank (WTT)||Tank-To-Wheel (TTW)|
|CO2 Emission (kg CO2 per 5 kg Tank Hydrogen) (Note 5)||CO2 Emission (kg CO2 per 5 kg Tank Hydrogen) (Note 6)|
|Hydrogen production pathways||Fuel Production Cycle|
|Fuel Consumption Phase|
(Vehicle Operations) (Note 7)
|Hydrogen (Toyota)||ICEV (Gasoline)||PHEV|
|Hydrogen (Toyota)||ICEV (Gasoline)||PHEV|
|Countries||Green Hydrogen Strategies|
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