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Review

Influences of Climate Change on Tourism Development in Small Pacific Island States

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Research and Transfer Centre Sustainable Development and Climate Change, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, 21033 Hamburg, Germany
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Department of Natural Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M15GD, UK
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School of Science and Technology, The University of Fiji, Lautoka, Fiji
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FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie und Management (FOM), 80335 Munich, Germany
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Faculty of Society and Economics, Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences, 47533 Kleve, Germany
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School of Continuing Education, T. A. Marryshow Community College, St George’s, Grenada
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Institute of Island Studies, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
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Faculty of Business Studies, Singidunum University, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Live & Learn Tonga, Nuku’alofa, Tonga
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Center for Geopolitical and Strategic Studies & Institute for Global Innovation and Development & School of Urban and Regional Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
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Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Mauritius, Réduit 80837, Mauritius
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen Royle
Sustainability 2021, 13(8), 4223; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084223
Received: 10 March 2021 / Revised: 1 April 2021 / Accepted: 8 April 2021 / Published: 10 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Island Tourism)
Tourism-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are a central driver of anthropogenic climate change. At the same time, climate change has both direct and indirect impacts on tourism, varying from damages of tourist assets due to extreme weather events, to losses of biodiversity. Small island developing states (SIDS) heavily depend on international tourism as a source of revenue and income. Therefore, much could be gained by assessing the vulnerability of the SIDS tourism sector and by identifying measures that may assist these islands in their sustainable adaptation efforts. Against this background, this interdisciplinary paper provides a review of tourism development and the implications of its emissions on the global climate, linked with observed and projected influences of climate change in the Pacific region, to explain the growing vulnerability of the overall sector, with a particular focus on SIDS tourism. A description of the effects of COVID-19 on international tourism and its consequences for SIDS complement the analysis. Case studies of two Pacific islands present some evidence of current climate impacts, underscoring the multiple risks small island nations and their tourism sectors face. The paper concludes by stating that some measures may be prioritized by decision-makers, so as to increase the resilience of a transforming tourism sector in SIDS. View Full-Text
Keywords: tourism; CO2 emissions; climate impacts; Pacific region; Solomon Islands; Tonga tourism; CO2 emissions; climate impacts; Pacific region; Solomon Islands; Tonga
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wolf, F.; Filho, W.L.; Singh, P.; Scherle, N.; Reiser, D.; Telesford, J.; Miljković, I.B.; Havea, P.H.; Li, C.; Surroop, D.; Kovaleva, M. Influences of Climate Change on Tourism Development in Small Pacific Island States. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4223. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084223

AMA Style

Wolf F, Filho WL, Singh P, Scherle N, Reiser D, Telesford J, Miljković IB, Havea PH, Li C, Surroop D, Kovaleva M. Influences of Climate Change on Tourism Development in Small Pacific Island States. Sustainability. 2021; 13(8):4223. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084223

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wolf, Franziska, Walter Leal Filho, Priyatma Singh, Nicolai Scherle, Dirk Reiser, John Telesford, Ivana Božić Miljković, Peni Hausia Havea, Chunlan Li, Dinesh Surroop, and Marina Kovaleva. 2021. "Influences of Climate Change on Tourism Development in Small Pacific Island States" Sustainability 13, no. 8: 4223. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084223

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