- What are the direct/indirect relationships between SDG11 and sustainability protocols?
- Could the sustainability protocols constitute a solution towards the achievement of SDG11?
2. Setting the Context: SDGs and Protocols
2.2. Sustainability Protocols
2.3. The Sustainability Protocols in Italy: Structure, Differences and Peculiarities
- Urban Scale;
- Residential Buildings.
3.1. Existence of a Relationship between the Evaluation Criteria of the Sustainability Protocols and the SDG11 Indicators
- one SDG11 indicator can correspond to several keywords. For example, the indicator “Percentage of people in homes with structural problems or moisture problems” is related to both structural and mold problems, therefore the two keywords “Structural problems” and “Moisture problems” correspond to this indicator;
- one keyword can correspond to several SDG11 indicators. For example, the keyword “Public transport” relates to the indicators “Families by level of difficulty in connecting to public transport in the area where they live” and “Students who routinely travel to the place of study by public transport only”.
- two keywords may be similar but have necessary specifications to be searched for within the SDG11 indicators. For example, the keywords “Air quality PM10” and “Air quality NO2” measure specificities in air quality, related, respectively, to particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide. Therefore, it would be inaccurate to consider the keyword “Air quality” alone.
3.2. Classification of the Relationship
- What are the direct/indirect relationships among SDG11 and sustainability protocols?
- Could the sustainability protocols constitute a solution towards the achievement of SDG11?
- percentage of people in overcrowded dwellings;
- people who routinely travel to the workplace by private means only;
- construction abuse.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Tiezzi, E. Tempi Storici, Tempi Biologici Vent’Anni Dopo; Donzelli: Rome, Italy, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- Rotondo, F.; Abastante, F.; Cotella, G.; Lami, I. Questioning Low-Carbon Transition Governance: A Comparative Analysis of European Case Studies. Sustainability 2020, 12, 460. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ellen MacArthur Foundation. Towards the Circular Economy: Economic and Business Rationale for an Accelerated Transition. Ellen MacArthur Foundation Cowes. 2013. Available online: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications/towards-the-circular-economy-vol-1-an-economic-and-business-rationale-for-an-accelerated-transition (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Pineda, V.S.; Corburn, J. Disability, Urban Health Equity, and the Coronavirus Pandemic: Promoting Cities for All. J. Urban Health 2020, 1–6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Low, S.; Smart, A. Thoughts about Public Space during Covid-19 Pandemic. City Soc. 2020, 32. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Ellen Macarthur Foundation. Available online: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org (accessed on 19 January 2021).
- Abastante, F.; Lami, I.M.; Mecca, B. How Covid-19 influences the 2030 Agenda: Do the practices of achieving the Sustainable Development Goal 11 need rethinking and adjustment. Valori Valutazioni 2020, 26, 11–23. [Google Scholar]
- Abastante, F.; Gaballo, M. How to assess walkability as a measure of pedestrian use: First step of a multi-methodological approach. In International Symposium: New Metropolitan Perspectives; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2020; pp. 254–263. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lazar, N.; Chithra, K. Evaluation of sustainability criteria for residential buildings of tropical climate: The stakeholder perspective. Energy Build. 2021, 232, 110654. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kumar, S.; Kumar, N.; Vivekadhish, S. Millennium development goals (MDGS) to sustainable development goals (SDGS): Addressing unfinished agenda and strengthening sustainable development and partnership. Indian J. Community Med. 2016, 41, 1–4. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- United Nation General Assembly. Global Indicator framework for the Sustainable Development Goals and Targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development; United Nation: New York, NY, USA, 2017; Available online: https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/indicators-list/ (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Asprone, D.; Pascale, C.; Prota, A.; Rubino, E.; Manfredi, G. La sostenibilità in edilizia ed i metodi di valutazione: L’esperienza della ricostruzione post-sisma a L’Aquila. Progettazione Sismica. 2011. Available online: https://www.ledijournals.com/ojs/index.php/ps/article/view/785 (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Fratini, C.F.; Georg, S.; Jørgensen, M.S. Exploring circular economy imaginaries in European cities: A research agenda for the governance of urban sustainability transitions. J. Clean. Prod. 2019, 228, 974–989. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sev, A. How can the construction industry contribute to sustainable development? A conceptual framework. Sustain. Dev. 2009, 17, 161–173. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Goubran, S. On the Role of Construction in Achieving the SDGs. J. Sustain. Res. 2019, 1. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alawneh, R.; Ghazali, F.; Ali, H.; Asif, M. A new index for assessing the contribution of energy efficiency in LEED 2009 certified green buildings to achieving UN sustainable development goals in Jordan. Int. J. Green Energy 2019, 16, 490–499. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Resolution 55/2. United Nations Millennium Declaration. Available online: http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm (accessed on 8 January 2020).
- Pedersen, C.S. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a Great Gift to Business! Procedia CIRP 2018, 69, 21–24. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UN General Assembly. The Future We Want (A/RES/66/288*). 2012, New York. Available online: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/rio20 (accessed on 8 January 2020).
- Allen, C.; Metternicht, G.; Wiedmann, T. Initial progress in implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): A review of evidence from countries. Sustain. Sci. 2018, 13, 1453–1467. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Resolution 70/1. Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Seventieth United Nations General Assembly New York. 2015. Available online: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld (accessed on 8 January 2020).
- UN-HABITAT. Sustainable Urbanization & Sustainable Development Goals 2019. Available online: https://unhabitat.org/sustainable-urbanization-sustainable-development-goals (accessed on 8 January 2020).
- Akuraju, V.; Pradhan, P.; Haase, D.; Kropp, J.P.; Rybski, D. Relating SDG11 indicators and urban scaling—An exploratory study. Sustain. Cities Soc. 2020, 52, 101853. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vaidya, H.; Chatterji, T. SDG 11 Sustainable Cities and Communities. In Actioning the Global Goals for Local Impact; Springer: Gateway Est, Singapore, 2020; pp. 173–185. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- United Nations. Global Indicator Framework for the Sustainable Development Goals and Targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 2020. Available online: https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/Global%20Indicator%20Framework%20after%202020%20review_Eng.pdf (accessed on 8 January 2020).
- EUROPEAN COMMISSION, EUROSTAT, EU SDG Indicator Set 2020. Result of the Review in Preparation of the 2020 Edition of the EU SDG Monitoring Report. 2020. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/276524/10369740/SDG_indicator_2020.pdf (accessed on 8 January 2020).
- ISTAT. Rapporto SDGs 2020. Informazioni statistiche per l’Agenda 2030 in Italia 2020. Available online: https://www.ISTAT.it/it/files//2020/05/SDGs_2020.pdf (accessed on 8 January 2020).
- Acierno, A.; Attaianese, E. FATTORE UMANO E SICUREZZA NEI Protocolli DI CERTIFICAZIONE A SCALA DI QUARTIERE. BDC Boll. Cent. Calza Bini 2018, 18, 267–284. [Google Scholar]
- Díaz-López, C.; Carpio, M.; Martín-Morales, M.; Zamorano, M. Analysis of the scientific evolution of sustainable building assessment methods. Sustain. Cities Soc. 2019, 49, 101610. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shan, M.; Hwang, B.-G. Green building rating systems: Global reviews of practices and research efforts. Sustain. Cities Soc. 2018, 39, 172–180. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Green Building Council Italia. Regolamento di Certificazione Protocolli a Marchio GBC, Rovereto: GBC. 2019. Available online: https://www.gbcitalia.org/documents/20182/21329/2019+Regolamento+certificazione+protocolli+GBC+Italia.pdf (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Istituto per l’innovazione e trasparenza degli appalti e la compatibilità ambientale and Ente Italiano di Normazione. Prassi di Riferimento (UNI/PdR 13.0:2019), Sostenibilità ambientale nelle costruzioni—Strumenti operativi per la valutazione della sostenibilità—Inquadramento generale e principi metodologici, 2019, Milano. Available online: https://www.ediltecnico.it/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/UNI21000963_EIT.pdf (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Agenzia per l’Energia Alto Adige—CasaClima. Direttiva Tecnica CasaClima Nature, 2017, Bolzano. Available online: https://www.agenziacasaclima.it/function/it/ISearch/search?&q=casa%20clima%20nature&type=5 (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Burlandi, S.; Cumo, F.; Di Matteo, U. (Eds.) ITACA Applicazione Critica del Protocollo per la Valutazione della Sostenibilità Energetica e Ambientale degli Edifici: Casi di Studio in Edilizia Residenziale e Terziaria; Gangemi Editore Spa: Rome, Italy, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Sicignano, E.; Di Ruocco, G.; Stabile, A. Quali—A Quantitative Environmental Assessment Method According to Italian CAM, for the Sustainable Design of Urban Neighbourhoods in Mediterranean Climatic Regions. Sustainability 2019, 11, 4603. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lazar, N.; Chithra, K. Green Building Rating Systems from the Perspective of the Three Pillars of Sustainability Using Point Allocation Method. In Green Buildings and Sustainable Engineering; Drück, H., Pillai, R., Tharian, M., Majeed, A., Eds.; Springer: Gateway East, Singapore, 2019. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- IUCN; UNEP; WWF. World Conservation Strategy. Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development. Gland, Switzerland. 1980. Available online: https://portals.iucn.org/library/efiles/documents/wcs-004.pdf (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Zichi, A. Green Protocols for Neighbourhoods and Cities. In Green Planning for Cities and Communities; Springer: Cham, Germany, 2020; pp. 302–328. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Illankoon, I.M.C.S.; Tam, V.W.Y.; Le, K.N. Environmental, Economic, and Social Parameters in International Green Building Rating Tools. J. Prof. Issues Eng. Educ. Pract. 2017, 143, 05016010. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Haapio, A.; Viitaniemi, P. A critical review of building environmental assessment tools. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 2008, 28, 469–482. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Marino, F.P.R.; Lembo, F.; Fanuele, V. Towards more sustainable patterns of urban development. IOP Conf. Series: Earth Environ. Sci. 2019, 297, 012028. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Berardi, U. Sustainability assessment of urban communities through rating systems. Environ. Dev. Sustain. 2013, 15, 1573–1591. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sharifi, A.; Murayama, A. Viability of using global standards for neighbourhood sustainability assessment: Insights from a comparative case study. J. Environ. Plan. Manag. 2015, 58, 1–23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 1992. Available online: https://www.un.org/en/conferences/environment/rio1992 (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Report of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Available online: http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-1annex1.html (accessed on 8 January 2020).
- Diaz-Sarachaga, J.M.; Jato-Espino, D.; Castro-Fresno, D. Evaluation of LEED for Neighbourhood Development and Envision Rating Frameworks for Their Implementation in Poorer Countries. Sustainability 2018, 10, 492. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Griggs, D.; Stafford-Smith, M.; Gaffney, O.; Rockström, J.; Öhman, M.C.; Shyamsundar, P.; Steffen, W.; Glaser, G.; Kanie, N.; Noble, I. Sustainable development goals for people and planet. Nat. Cell Biol. 2013, 495, 305–307. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Boarin, P.; Lucchi, E.; Zuppiroli, M. An Assessment Method for Certified Environmental Sustainability in the Preservation of Historic Buildings. A Focus on Energy Efficiency and Indoor Environmental Quality in the Italian Experience of GBC Historic Building. Restor. Build. Monum. 2019, 1. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cole, R.J.; Valdebenito, M.J. The importation of building environmental certification systems: International usages of BREEAM and LEED. Build. Res. Inf. 2013, 41, 662–676. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bancher, M.; Erlacher, R.; Klammsteiner, N. La mia CasaClima: Progettare, costruire e abitare nel segno della sostenibilità. Raetia. 2009. Available online: https://limond.it/products/473-la-mia-casaclima (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Asdrubali, F.; Baldinelli, G.; Bianchi, F.; Sambuco, S. A comparison between environmental sustainability rating systems LEED and ITACA for residential buildings. Build. Environ. 2015, 86, 98–108. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dgp Bolzano 27 dicembre 2013, n. 2012. Direttive sulla prestazione energetica nell’edilizia—Modifica della propria delibera 4 marzo 2013, n. 362. Available online: https://www.agenziacasaclima.it/smartedit/documents/inhalte/_Inhalte_Downloads/_published/Delibera-362-e-successive-modifiche.pdf (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Official Gazette, no. 91 of April 19, 2016, Legislative Decree no. 50 of April 18, 2016 Public Contracts Code. Available online: https://www.codiceappalti.it/Home/Legge/?legge=Italian_Procurement_Code (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Audis; GBC; Legambiente. Ecoquartieri in Italia: Un patto per la rigenerazione urbana. 2011, Milano, s.n. Available online: http://upload.legambiente.org/share/ecoquartieri/docs/ecoquartieri_in_italia_documento_di_confronto.pdf (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Standards for Sustainable Building. In Proceedings of the Conference of the Regions and Autonomous Provinces, Outline of Regional Law, Rome, Italy, 15 March 2007.
- Lamorgese, L.; Geneletti, D. Sustainability principles in strategic environmental assessment: A framework for analysis and examples from Italian urban planning. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 2013, 42, 116–126. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mangialardo, A.; Micelli, E.; Saccani, F. Does Sustainability Affect Real Estate Market Values? Empirical Evidence from the Office Buildings Market in Milan (Italy). Sustainability 2018, 11, 12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- He, B.-J. Towards the next generation of green building for urban heat island mitigation: Zero UHI impact building. Sustain. Cities Soc. 2019, 50, 101647. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Van der Meulen, S.; Maring, L. Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services Soil ecosystems SOILS4EU/DGENV. 2018. Available online: https://www.isprambiente.gov.it/files2018/pubblicazioni/rapporti/AnnessometodologicoalRapportoServiziecosistemici_2018.pdf (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Hilty, L.M.; Aebischer, B.; Andersson, G.; Lohmann, W. (Eds.) ICT4S—ICT for Sustainability: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Sustainability; ETH E-Collection: Zurich, Switzerland, 2013. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- WORLD GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL. New Report: The Building and Construction Sector can Reach Net Zero Carbon Emissions by 2050. Available online: https://www.construction21.org/articles/h/new-report-the-building-and-construction-sector-can-reach-net-zero-carbon-emissions-by-2050.html (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Castaldo, V.L.; Pisello, A.L.; Boarin, P.; Petrozzi, A.; Cotana, F. The Experience of International Sustainability Protocols for Retrofitting Historical Buildings in Italy. Build. 2017, 7, 52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- IPCC. Climate Change 2014 Mitigation of Climate Change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Vol. Working Group III Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2014; p. 1454. [Google Scholar]
- Moschetti, R.; Mazzarella, L. Protocols for assessment of building sustainability level: A New proposal for the Italian context. AiCARR J. 2015, 31, 54–58. [Google Scholar]
- Zinzi, M.; Agnoli, S. Cool and green roofs. An energy and comfort comparison between passive cooling and mitigation urban heat island techniques for residential buildings in the Mediterranean region. Energy Build. 2012, 55, 66–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Santa, U.; Bancher, M.; Demattio, M.; Klammsteiner, U. The CasaClima building assessment scheme: A key to design and construction quality, energy efficiency, and sustainability. ce/papers 2019, 3, 182–188. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cumo, F.; Fogheri, A.M.; Giustini, F.; Pennacchia, E.; Romeo, C. Sviluppo della certificazione energetico ambientale degli edifici come strumento per l’efficienza energetico-sostenibile e l’aumento della qualità ambientale interna degli edifici. 2015. Available online: https://www.enea.it/it/Ricerca_sviluppo/documenti/ricerca-di-sistema-elettrico/edifici-pa/2014/rds-par2014-084.pdf (accessed on 31 March 2021).
- Tam, V.W.; Karimipour, H.; Le, K.N.; Wang, J. Green neighbourhood: Review on the international assessment systems. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018, 82, 689–699. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pedro, J.; Reis, A.; Pinheiro, M.D.; Silva, C. A systematic review of the international assessment systems for urban sustainability. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2019, 323, 012076. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
(preceded by the MDGs born in 2000)
|Aim||Support sustainable development policies implementation||Promote sustainability-conscious design|
|Reference scale||Global, European and national||National|
|Sustainable development themes addressed||Environment;|
Poverty and hunger;
|Neighborhoods||Home||Condominiums||Urban Scale||Residential Buildings||Nature||Plus|
|Moisture problems||Ventilation and moisture control systems|
|Structural problems||Structural optimization|
|Public transport||Access to public transport||Access to public transport|
|Exposure to flood risk||Trend reduction in population exposure to flood risk|
|Air quality PM10||Air quality|
Air quality during the construction phase
|Air quality NO2||Air quality monitoring||Air quality and mechanical ventilation||High quality air and low-emission materials|
|Temperature||Temperature during summer season|
|Green areas||Rainwater and maximization of green areas||Availability of green areas|
|SDG11 Indicators (ISTAT)||GBC||ITACA||CasaClima|
|Neighborhoods||Home||Condominiums||Urban Scale||Residential Buildings||Nature||Plus|
|Percentage of people in homes with structural problems or moisture problems||●||●|
|Percentage of people in overcrowded dwellings|
|Percentage of people in homes with noise problems from neighbors or the street||○||○||○||○||○|
|Families by level of difficulty in connecting to public transport in the area where they live||●||●||●|
|People who routinely travel to the workplace by private means only|
|Students who routinely travel to the place of study by public transport only||●||●||●|
|Waterproofing and per capita soil consumption||○||○|
|Population exposed to landslide risk by region and by provincial capital city||○||○|
|Population exposed to flood risk by region and by provincial capital city||○|
|Population exposed to flood risk||○||●|
|Population exposed to landslide risk||○|
|Number of deaths and missing persons due to landslides||○|
|Number of injured by landslides||○|
|Number of deaths and missing persons due to floods/flooding||○||○|
|Number of people injured by floods/flooding||○|
|Municipal waste sent to landfill as a percentage of total municipal waste collected||○||○|
|Urban population exposure to air pollution by particulate matter <2.5 μm||○||○||○||○||○||○|
|Urban population exposure to air pollution by particulate matter <10 μm||○||○||○|
|Urban air quality-PM10||○||○||●○||○||○|
|Exceedances of the daily limit value for PM10 in provincial capital cities||○||○||○|
|PM10 Average annual concentration in provincial capital municipalities||○||○||○|
|PM2.5 Average annual concentration in provincial capital municipalities||○||○||○|
|Urban air quality-Nitrogen dioxide||○||○||●○||●||●||●|
|NO2 Average annual concentration in provincial capital municipalities||○||○||○|
|OZONE daily number exceeding the target in the provincial capital municipalities||○||○||○||○||○|
|Indices of temperature and precipitation extremes for provincial capitals||○||○||○||○||○||○||○|
|Indices of temperature and precipitation extremes in the main provincial capitals/metropolitan cities. Climate value (CLINO) 1971- 2000||○||○||○|
|Incidence of urban green areas on the urbanized surface of cities||○||●||● ○|
|People aged 14-65 who have suffered at least one sexual harassment in the last 12 months||○|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).