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Article

Evaluating the Implementation of the “Build-Back-Better” Concept for Critical Infrastructure Systems: Lessons from Saint-Martin’s Island Following Hurricane Irma

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Lab’Urba, Université Gustave Eiffel, Ecole des Ingénieurs de la Ville de Paris, Université Paris-Est Creteil, 75019 Paris, France
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EPTB Seine Grands Lacs, 12 Rue Villiot, 75012 Paris, France
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sotirios Argyroudis and Carlos Oliveira Cruz
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3133; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063133
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 3 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 12 March 2021
A limited number of studies in the scientific literature discuss the “Build-Back-Better” (BBB) critical infrastructure (CI) concept. Investigations of its operational aspects and its efficient implementation are even rarer. The term “Better” in BBB is often confusing to practitioners and leads to unclear and non-uniform objectives for guiding accurate decision-making. In an attempt to fill these gaps, this study offers a conceptual analysis of BBB’s operational aspects by examining the term “Better”. In its methodological approach, this study evaluates the state of Saint-Martin’s CI before and after Hurricane Irma and, accordingly, reveals the indicators to assess during reconstruction projects. The proposed methods offer practitioners a guidance tool for planning efficient BBB CI projects or for evaluating ongoing programs through the established BBB evaluation grid. Key findings of the study offer insights and a new conceptual equation of the BBB CI by revealing the holistic and interdisciplinary connotations behind the term “Better” CI: “Build-Back-resilient”, “Build-Back-sustainable”, and “Build-Back-accessible to all and upgraded CI”. The proposed explanations can facilitate the efficient application of BBB for CI by operators, stakeholders, and practitioners and can help them to contextualize the term “Better” with respect to their area and its CI systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: “Build-Back-Better” concept; critical infrastructure networks; recovery; sustainability; resilience; disaster risk reduction “Build-Back-Better” concept; critical infrastructure networks; recovery; sustainability; resilience; disaster risk reduction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Der Sarkissian, R.; Dabaj, A.; Diab, Y.; Vuillet, M. Evaluating the Implementation of the “Build-Back-Better” Concept for Critical Infrastructure Systems: Lessons from Saint-Martin’s Island Following Hurricane Irma. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3133. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063133

AMA Style

Der Sarkissian R, Dabaj A, Diab Y, Vuillet M. Evaluating the Implementation of the “Build-Back-Better” Concept for Critical Infrastructure Systems: Lessons from Saint-Martin’s Island Following Hurricane Irma. Sustainability. 2021; 13(6):3133. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063133

Chicago/Turabian Style

Der Sarkissian, Rita, Anas Dabaj, Youssef Diab, and Marc Vuillet. 2021. "Evaluating the Implementation of the “Build-Back-Better” Concept for Critical Infrastructure Systems: Lessons from Saint-Martin’s Island Following Hurricane Irma" Sustainability 13, no. 6: 3133. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063133

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