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Open AccessArticle

Ecosystem Services Assessment Tools for Regenerative Urban Design in Oceania

1
Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Wellington School of Architecture, Victoria University of Wellington, 139 Vivian Street, Wellington 6011, Aotearoa, New Zealand
3
School of Geography, Environmental and Earth Science, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, Wellington 6012, Aotearoa, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jianguo Wu
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2825; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052825
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 16 February 2021 / Accepted: 26 February 2021 / Published: 5 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eco-Cities, Green-Blue Design and Regenerative Sustainability)
Tools that spatially model ecosystem services offer opportunities to integrate ecology into regenerative urban design. However, few of these tools are designed for assessing ecosystem services in cities, meaning their application by designers is potentially limited. This research reviews and compares a range of ecosystem services assessment tools to find those that are most suited for the urban context of Oceania. The tool classification includes considerations of type of input and output data, time commitment, and necessary skills required. The strengths and limitations of the most relevant tools are further discussed alongside illustrative case studies, some collected from literature and one conducted as part of this research in Wellington, Aotearoa using the Land Utilisation and Capability Indicator (LUCI) tool. A major finding of the research is that from the 95 tools reviewed, only four are judged to be potentially relevant for urban design projects. These are modelling tools that allow spatially explicit visualisation of biophysical quantification of ecosystem services. The ecosystem services assessed vary among tools and the outputs’ reliability is often highly influenced by the user’s technical expertise. The provided recommendations support urban designers and architects to choose the tool that best suits their regenerative design project requirements. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecosystem-based adaptation; multidisciplinary design; urban ecology; Pacific islands; nature-based design; SIDS; climate change adaptation; New Zealand; urban design ecosystem-based adaptation; multidisciplinary design; urban ecology; Pacific islands; nature-based design; SIDS; climate change adaptation; New Zealand; urban design
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MDPI and ACS Style

Delpy, F.; Pedersen Zari, M.; Jackson, B.; Benavidez, R.; Westend, T. Ecosystem Services Assessment Tools for Regenerative Urban Design in Oceania. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2825. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052825

AMA Style

Delpy F, Pedersen Zari M, Jackson B, Benavidez R, Westend T. Ecosystem Services Assessment Tools for Regenerative Urban Design in Oceania. Sustainability. 2021; 13(5):2825. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052825

Chicago/Turabian Style

Delpy, Fabian; Pedersen Zari, Maibritt; Jackson, Bethanna; Benavidez, Rubianca; Westend, Thomas. 2021. "Ecosystem Services Assessment Tools for Regenerative Urban Design in Oceania" Sustainability 13, no. 5: 2825. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052825

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