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Article

The Improved Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals and the Growth of Trifolium repens L.: The Role of K2HEDP and Plant Growth Regulators Alone and in Combination

1
Green Chemistry for Sustainable Development, Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, 125047 Moscow, Russia
2
Non-Profit Institute for Chemical Reagents and High Purity Chemical Substances of NRC «Kurchatov Institute», 107076 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Franco Marsan
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052432
Received: 13 December 2020 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 19 February 2021 / Published: 24 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Sustainability and Applications)
Heavy metals are among the most widespread pollutants in soil. Phytoextraction technology is used to solve the problem of multi-metal-contaminated soil. The efficiency of this process can be increased by introducing various amendments. A soil amendment is any material added to a soil to improve its physical properties, such as water retention, permeability, water infiltration, drainage, aeration, and structure. Some chemical amendments for enhanced phytoextraction, such as amino polycarboxylates chelators, can be hazardous to the environment and perform poorly at pH > 8. The effect of the potassium salt of hydroxyethylidene diphosphonic acid (K2HEDP), plant growth regulators (PGRs), and iron chelate alone and in combination on the phytoextraction by Trifolium repens L. seedlings of Cd, Ni, and Cu was studied in this work. K2HEDP works in a wider pH range. The results of this study confirmed that amino polycarboxylate chelators, with the sodium salt of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (Na2EDTA) as an example, have a pronounced negative effect on the growth and development (organ mass) of Trifolium repens L. seedlings. K2HEDP, proposed by the authors instead of Na2EDTA, produced a pronounced positive effect on plant growth and development, which was further enhanced by the use of PGRs and with iron chelates. However, it should be noted that K2HEDP showed significantly lower efficiency in trials on the Trifolium repens L. seedlings. The highest was the efficiency of K2HEDP with PGRs and iron chelates for the phytoextraction of Cd. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-metal-contaminated soil; phytoextraction; chelating ligand; plant growth regulators; complexones—organophosphorus; iron chelate multi-metal-contaminated soil; phytoextraction; chelating ligand; plant growth regulators; complexones—organophosphorus; iron chelate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Makarova, A.; Nikulina, E.; Avdeenkova, T.; Pishaeva, K. The Improved Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals and the Growth of Trifolium repens L.: The Role of K2HEDP and Plant Growth Regulators Alone and in Combination. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2432. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052432

AMA Style

Makarova A, Nikulina E, Avdeenkova T, Pishaeva K. The Improved Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals and the Growth of Trifolium repens L.: The Role of K2HEDP and Plant Growth Regulators Alone and in Combination. Sustainability. 2021; 13(5):2432. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052432

Chicago/Turabian Style

Makarova, Anna; Nikulina, Elena; Avdeenkova, Tatiana; Pishaeva, Ksenia. 2021. "The Improved Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals and the Growth of Trifolium repens L.: The Role of K2HEDP and Plant Growth Regulators Alone and in Combination" Sustainability 13, no. 5: 2432. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052432

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