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A Review of the Water–Energy–Food Nexus Research in Africa

South African Weather Service, Private Bag X097, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
Centre for Transformative Agricultural and Food Systems, School of Agricultural Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa
Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield Pretoria 0028, South Africa
Department of Information Technology, Central University of Technology, Free State Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
School of Geography and Environmental Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa
Water Research Commission of South Africa (WRC), Lynnwood Manor, Pretoria 0081, South Africa
School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield Pretoria 0028, South Africa
Global Change Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa
Department of Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Maasai Mara University, P.O. Box 861-20500, Narok, Kenya
Kenya Water Institute, P.O. Box 60013-00200, Nairobi, Kenya
Centre for Environmental Studies, Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Priyanka Sharma
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 1762;
Received: 5 December 2020 / Revised: 22 January 2021 / Accepted: 2 February 2021 / Published: 6 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Food-Energy Nexus for Sustainable Development)
Notwithstanding the dispersed nature of the water, energy and food (WEF) nexus scholarship in the African continent, its strategic importance to the African agenda has gained widespread attention in research and planning circles. In this regard, the bibliometric science mapping and content analysis of the WEF nexus scientific publication trends, the conceptual, intellectual and social structures, as well as the inherent paradigmatic shifts in the WEF nexus body of knowledge in the African continent have been undertaken, using the nexus body of literature accessed from the Web of Science and Scopus core collection databases. The review results confirmed that, whilst the WEF nexus scholarship has expanded since 2013, there is also evidence of growth in the conceptual, intellectual and social structures of the WEF nexus in the African continent. These shifts have resulted in the emergence of hot topics (subfields) including modelling and optimization, climate variability and change, environmental ecosystem services sustainability, and sustainable development and livelihoods. The review further determined that these structures have evolved along two main perspectives of WEF nexus research development, i.e., the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary domains. In support of the interpretation of the visual analytics of the intellectual structure and changing patterns of the WEF nexus research, the shifts in positivist, interpretivist and pragmatic paradigmatic perspectives (these are underpinned by the ontology, epistemology, and methodology and methods) are considered when explaining WEF nexus research shifts: (a) From the unconnected silo paradigms that focus on water, energy and food (security concerns) to interconnected (and sometimes interdependent or nested) linkages or systems incorporating environmental, social-economic and political drivers (also viewed as subfields) in a bid to holistically support the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) across the African continent; and (b) in the evaluation of the WEF nexus scholarship based on novel analytical approaches. We contend that whilst the theories of science change underpin this apparent expansion, the macro-economic theory will find use in explaining how the WEF nexus research agenda is negotiated and the Integrative Environmental Governance (IEG) is the duly suited governance theory to bridge the inherent disconnect between WEF nexus output and governance processes uncovered in the literature. Overall, operational challenges and opportunities of the WEF nexus abound, transitioning the WEF nexus research to practice in Africa, motivating the need to take advantage of the scholar–practitioner research underpinnings, as contemplated in the transdisciplinary research approach, which is characterised by the dual quest for new knowledge and considerations of use. Yet, there is need for more coordinated and collaborative research to achieve impact and transition from WEF nexus thinking to WEF nexus practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; trade-offs; resilience; water; energy; food; synergies sustainability; trade-offs; resilience; water; energy; food; synergies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Botai, J.O.; Botai, C.M.; Ncongwane, K.P.; Mpandeli, S.; Nhamo, L.; Masinde, M.; Adeola, A.M.; Mengistu, M.G.; Tazvinga, H.; Murambadoro, M.D.; Lottering, S.; Motochi, I.; Hayombe, P.; Zwane, N.N.; Wamiti, E.K.; Mabhaudhi, T. A Review of the Water–Energy–Food Nexus Research in Africa. Sustainability 2021, 13, 1762.

AMA Style

Botai JO, Botai CM, Ncongwane KP, Mpandeli S, Nhamo L, Masinde M, Adeola AM, Mengistu MG, Tazvinga H, Murambadoro MD, Lottering S, Motochi I, Hayombe P, Zwane NN, Wamiti EK, Mabhaudhi T. A Review of the Water–Energy–Food Nexus Research in Africa. Sustainability. 2021; 13(4):1762.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Botai, Joel O.; Botai, Christina M.; Ncongwane, Katlego P.; Mpandeli, Sylvester; Nhamo, Luxon; Masinde, Muthoni; Adeola, Abiodun M.; Mengistu, Michael G.; Tazvinga, Henerica; Murambadoro, Miriam D.; Lottering, Shenelle; Motochi, Isaac; Hayombe, Patrick; Zwane, Nosipho N.; Wamiti, Eric K.; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe. 2021. "A Review of the Water–Energy–Food Nexus Research in Africa" Sustainability 13, no. 4: 1762.

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