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Article

Quantifying the Health and Wealth Benefits of Reducing Point Source Pollution: The Case of the Sugar Industry in Pakistan

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Department of Geography and Regional Planning, University of Balochistan, Quetta 87300, Balochistan, Pakistan
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Center for the Analysis of Trade and Economic Transition, University of Pau and Pays de l’Adour Pau, 64000 Pau, France
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Faculty of Agricultural, Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
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Department of Forestry, Shaheed BB University, Sheringal Dir (Upper) 18050, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
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Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
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Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), 15374 Müncheberg, Germany
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Department of Agricultural Extension Education and Communication, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
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Directorate of Commerce Education and Management Sciences, Higher Education Department Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luciano Massetti and David Pearlmutter
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13252; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313252
Received: 16 September 2021 / Revised: 19 October 2021 / Accepted: 29 October 2021 / Published: 30 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Microclimate and Air Quality as Drivers of Urban Design)
Air pollution is among the major causes of death and disease all around the globe. The prime impact of ambient air pollution is on the lungs through the respiratory system. This study aims to estimate the health cost due to air pollution from a Sugar Mill in the Mardan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To determine the impact of pollution on respiratory illness, primary data were collected from 1141 individuals from 200 households living within a 3 km radius of the mill. The Household Production Method was used to drive the reduced-form Dose–Response Function and the Mitigation Cost Function for assessing the impact of pollution on health and then estimating the monetary cost associated with mitigating such illnesses. The results indicate that about 60% of the respondents living in the surrounding area of the mill suffered from different respiratory illnesses. The study estimates that by reducing the suspended particulate matter (SPM) level by 50%, the expected annual welfare gains to an individual living within a 3 km radius of the mill are US $20.21. The whole community residing within a 3 km radius of the mill will enjoy an estimated welfare gain of PKR. 70.67 million (US $0.511 million). If the pollution standard limits prescribed by the World Health Organization are followed, the expected monetary benefits to all the individuals living within a 3 km radius of the mill are PKR. 114.48 million (US $0.27 million) annually. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental pollution; health cost; household production function; dose–response function; mitigation cost function; respiratory illnesses environmental pollution; health cost; household production function; dose–response function; mitigation cost function; respiratory illnesses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Panezai, S.; Ali, U.; Zeb, A.; Rafiq, M.; Ullah, A.; Saqib, S.E. Quantifying the Health and Wealth Benefits of Reducing Point Source Pollution: The Case of the Sugar Industry in Pakistan. Sustainability 2021, 13, 13252. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313252

AMA Style

Panezai S, Ali U, Zeb A, Rafiq M, Ullah A, Saqib SE. Quantifying the Health and Wealth Benefits of Reducing Point Source Pollution: The Case of the Sugar Industry in Pakistan. Sustainability. 2021; 13(23):13252. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313252

Chicago/Turabian Style

Panezai, Sanaullah, Ubaid Ali, Alam Zeb, Muhammad Rafiq, Ayat Ullah, and Shahab E. Saqib. 2021. "Quantifying the Health and Wealth Benefits of Reducing Point Source Pollution: The Case of the Sugar Industry in Pakistan" Sustainability 13, no. 23: 13252. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313252

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