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Article

Social Cohesion as the Missing Link between Natural Resource Management and Peacebuilding: Lessons from Cocoa Production in Côte d’Ivoire and Colombia

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Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), 15374 Müncheberg, Germany
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Department of Urban Plant Ecophysiology, Albrecht Daniel Thaer-Institute of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany
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Institute of Sociology, Freie Universität zu Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany
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INKOTA-Netzwerk e.V., 10115 Berlin, Germany
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Department of Resource Economics, Albrecht Daniel Thaer-Institute of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany
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German Development Institute/Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE), 53113 Bonn, Germany
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Alliance of Bioversity International and The International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali 763537, Colombia
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Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
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Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO), 06120 Halle, Germany
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German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP), 10719 Berlin, Germany
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Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), 53113 Bonn, Germany
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Climate Focus, 10119 Berlin, Germany
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Department of Geography, Integrative Research Institute on Transformations of Human-Environment Systems, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
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Institute of Sociology, Technische Universität Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany
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Department of Business and Economics, Berlin School of Economics and Law (HWR), 10825 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Boggia
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13002; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313002
Received: 27 October 2021 / Revised: 19 November 2021 / Accepted: 21 November 2021 / Published: 24 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Social Ecology and Sustainability)
Social cohesion plays a key role in processes of peacebuilding and sustainable development. Fostering social cohesion might present a potential to enhance the connection of natural resource management and peacebuilding and better functioning of sustainable land use systems. This contribution explores the nexus between social cohesion, natural resource management, and peacebuilding. We do so by (1) reviewing literature on the three concepts and (2) studying four different key action areas in the context of sustainable cocoa production for their potential to enhance social cohesion, namely (a) agroforestry; (b) cooperatives; (c) certification schemes; and (d) trade policies. Research is based on experience from cocoa production in two post-conflict countries, Côte d’Ivoire and Colombia. Our findings show that by fostering environmentally sustainable agricultural practices, these key action areas have a clear potential to foster social cohesion among cocoa producers and thus provide a valuable contribution to post-conflict peacebuilding in both countries. However, the actual effects strongly depend on a multitude of local factors which need to be carefully taken into consideration. Further, the focus in implementation of some of these approaches tends to be on increasing agricultural productivity and not directly on fostering cocoa farmers’ wellbeing and societal relations, and hence a shift toward social objectives is needed in order to strengthen these approaches as a part of overall peacebuilding strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: social trust; environmental peacebuilding; sustainable development; natural resource management; sustainable cocoa production social trust; environmental peacebuilding; sustainable development; natural resource management; sustainable cocoa production
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MDPI and ACS Style

Löhr, K.; Aruqaj, B.; Baumert, D.; Bonatti, M.; Brüntrup, M.; Bunn, C.; Castro-Nunez, A.; Chavez-Miguel, G.; Del Rio, M.L.; Hachmann, S.; Morales Muñoz, H.C.; Ollendorf, F.; Rodriguez, T.; Rudloff, B.; Schorling, J.; Schuffenhauer, A.; Schulte, I.; Sieber, S.; Tadesse, S.; Ulrichs, C.; Vogel, C.; Weinhardt, M. Social Cohesion as the Missing Link between Natural Resource Management and Peacebuilding: Lessons from Cocoa Production in Côte d’Ivoire and Colombia. Sustainability 2021, 13, 13002. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313002

AMA Style

Löhr K, Aruqaj B, Baumert D, Bonatti M, Brüntrup M, Bunn C, Castro-Nunez A, Chavez-Miguel G, Del Rio ML, Hachmann S, Morales Muñoz HC, Ollendorf F, Rodriguez T, Rudloff B, Schorling J, Schuffenhauer A, Schulte I, Sieber S, Tadesse S, Ulrichs C, Vogel C, Weinhardt M. Social Cohesion as the Missing Link between Natural Resource Management and Peacebuilding: Lessons from Cocoa Production in Côte d’Ivoire and Colombia. Sustainability. 2021; 13(23):13002. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313002

Chicago/Turabian Style

Löhr, Katharina, Bujar Aruqaj, Daniel Baumert, Michelle Bonatti, Michael Brüntrup, Christian Bunn, Augusto Castro-Nunez, Giovanna Chavez-Miguel, Martha L. Del Rio, Samyra Hachmann, Héctor C. Morales Muñoz, Franziska Ollendorf, Tatiana Rodriguez, Bettina Rudloff, Johannes Schorling, Arne Schuffenhauer, Ingrid Schulte, Stefan Sieber, Sophia Tadesse, Christian Ulrichs, Claudia Vogel, and Michael Weinhardt. 2021. "Social Cohesion as the Missing Link between Natural Resource Management and Peacebuilding: Lessons from Cocoa Production in Côte d’Ivoire and Colombia" Sustainability 13, no. 23: 13002. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313002

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