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Article

Main Challenges to Concrete Recycling in Practice

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Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang 26300, Malaysia
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Unaizah College of Engineering, Qassim University, Buraydah 52571, Saudi Arabia
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School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor 11800, Malaysia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sayanthan Ramakrishnan
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11077; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131911077
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 23 September 2021 / Accepted: 29 September 2021 / Published: 7 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Green Building)
While concrete recycling is crucial to protecting the environment, its implementation in practice is low in many countries. This study aims to highlight challenges to concrete recycling. To achieve that aim, the study objectives are (1) to identify the main challenges to concrete recycling in construction projects; (2) to compare the main challenges between small–medium enterprises (SMEs) and large enterprises (LEs); and (3) to determine the underlying groups among the main challenges. Potential challenges were identified through a systematic literature review of journal articles and semi-structured interviews with fifteen industry practitioners. Then, the identified challenges were inserted into a questionnaire survey and distributed to industry practitioners. Eighty-nine valid responses were collected and analyzed using the mean score ranking, normalization, agreement analysis, and factor analysis techniques. The analyses show thirteen main challenges to concrete recycling. The main challenges include increased project duration, lack of national programs, lack of comprehensive rules and regulations, increased project cost, low demand for recycled concrete, low cost-effectiveness of concrete recycling, and increased transportation cost. However, there is no consensus on the criticality between SMEs and LEs. For example, increased project cost is the main challenge for SMEs but is only middlingly ranked for LEs. Finally, the main challenges can be categorized into three interrelated groups: people and technical, legal and environmental, and economic challenges. This study contributes to the literature by analyzing challenges that hinder concrete recycling in practice. The findings allow researchers and practitioners to develop strategies to reduce concrete recycling rejection. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable development; sustainable construction; waste management; construction and demolition waste; concrete recycling; challenges sustainable development; sustainable construction; waste management; construction and demolition waste; concrete recycling; challenges
MDPI and ACS Style

Badraddin, A.K.; Rahman, R.A.; Almutairi, S.; Esa, M. Main Challenges to Concrete Recycling in Practice. Sustainability 2021, 13, 11077. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131911077

AMA Style

Badraddin AK, Rahman RA, Almutairi S, Esa M. Main Challenges to Concrete Recycling in Practice. Sustainability. 2021; 13(19):11077. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131911077

Chicago/Turabian Style

Badraddin, Abdulmalek K., Rahimi A. Rahman, Saud Almutairi, and Muneera Esa. 2021. "Main Challenges to Concrete Recycling in Practice" Sustainability 13, no. 19: 11077. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131911077

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