Improving pedestrian safety at urban intersections requires intelligent systems that should not only understand the actual vehicle–pedestrian (V2P) interaction state but also proactively anticipate the event’s future severity pattern. This paper presents a Gated Recurrent Unit-based system that aims to predict, up to 3 s ahead in time, the severity level of V2P encounters, depending on the current scene representation drawn from on-board radars’ data. A car-driving simulator experiment has been designed to collect sequential mobility features on a cohort of 65 licensed university students who faced different V2P conflicts on a planned urban route. To accurately describe the pedestrian safety condition during the encounter process, a combination of surrogate safety indicators, namely TAdv (Time Advantage) and T2
(Nearness of the Encroachment), are considered for modeling. Due to the nature of these indicators, multiple recurrent neural networks are trained to separately predict T2
continuous values and TAdv categories. Afterwards, their predictions are exploited to label serious conflict interactions. As a comparison, an additional Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) neural network is developed to directly predict the severity level of inner-city encounters. The latter neural model reaches the best performance on the test set, scoring a recall value of 0.899. Based on selected threshold values, the presented models can be used to label pedestrians near accident events and to enhance existing intelligent driving systems.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited