Global Fisheries Management and Community Interest
2. Main Threats to Global Fisheries
3. Protection of Community Interests in the Global Fisheries Management System
3.1. Basic Legal Framework of Fisheries Management: The 1982 LOSC
3.1.1. Zonal Management Approach
3.1.2. Species-Specific Approach
3.2. FAO’s Efforts in the Global Fisheries Management
3.2.1. Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (FAO Code)
3.3. New Developments of Regional Institutional Approach for Fisheries Management on the High Seas
4. Achievements of Global Fisheries Management System
“A State which is not a member of a sub-regional or regional fisheries management organization……and which does not otherwise agree to apply the conservation and management measures established by such organization or arrangement, is not discharged from the obligation to cooperate, in accordance with the Convention and this Agreement, in the conservation and management of the relevant straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks.”
5. Limits of the Global Fisheries Management System
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Name||Area of Competence||Species and Stocks Coverage|
|Continents||Central Asian and Caucasus Regional Fisheries and Aquaculture Commission (CACF)||The inland waters and areas within the territorial boundaries of the States of Central Asia||All living aquatic resources|
|Lake Chad Basin Commission (CBLT)||Inland waters of Lake Chad Waters and Lake Chad Basin||The waters and transboundary water resources|
|Committee for Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture of Africa (CIFAA)||Inland waters of member countries||All species|
|Commission for Small-Scale and Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture of Latin America and the Caribbean (COPPESAALC)||Marine coastal and inland waters of member countries||All species|
|Commission is European Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Advisory Commission (EIFAAC)||Inland waters of member countries||All species|
|Lake Tanganyika Authority (LTA)||The Lake Tanganyika Basin||Littoral and pelagic species of the Lake Tanganyika|
|Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization (LVFO)||Lake Victoria||All aquatic species|
|Mekong River Commission (MRC)||The Mekong River Basin||All living resources|
|The Aquaculture Network for the Americas (RAA)||The inland territories and national waters of member states||All commercially farmed aquatic species|
|Global and trans-ocean||Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP)||All the areas of land or water that any albatross or petrel inhabits, stays in temporarily, crosses or over-flies at any time on its normal migration routes||22 species of albatross and 8 species of petrels|
|Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)||Southern Ocean||All marine living resources, except for the management or harvesting of whales and seals|
|Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna (CCSBT)||Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean||Southern bluefin tuna|
|International Whaling Commission (IWC)||Global||Whales|
|Central America Fisheries and Aquaculture Organization (OSPESCA)||National waters, inland waters and EEZs of its member States||Marine capture, inland capture and aquaculture fish stocks of member States|
|Pacific Ocean||Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission (APFIC)||Asia-Pacific area, including the Bay of Bengal||Marine, fresh and brackish water species, including coastal and high seas stocks|
|Convention on the Conservation and Management of Pollock Resources in the Central Bering Sea (CCBSP)||High seas of the Bering Sea||Alaska pollock|
|Pacific Islands Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA)||High seas, National waters||Tuna and tuna-like species|
|Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC)||Eastern Pacific Ocean||Tuna and tuna-like species and other species of fish taken by vessels fishing for tunas and tuna-like species|
|International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC)||High seas, National waters||Pacific halibut|
|North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission (NPAFC)||High seas of North Pacific Ocean and its adjacent seas||Chum salmon, Coho salmon, pink salmon, sockeye salmon, Chinook salmon, cherry salmon, steelhead trout|
|North Pacific Fisheries Commission (NPFC)||High seas area of the North Pacific Ocean||Fish, mollusks, crustaceans and other marine species caught by fishing vessels within the Convention Area|
|North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES)||The temperate and sub-Arctic region of the North Pacific Ocean and its adjacent seas||All living resources|
|Pacific Salmon Commission (PSC)||Transboundary rivers and salmon-spawning rivers belonging to one party, where the salmon are subject to capture by the other party||All Pacific salmon stocks|
|Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC)||SEAFDEC does not have a defined geographical area of competence||All fishery resources|
|Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)||All the Pacific Island countries and territories which, together with France, USA, New Zealand and Australia, comprise the member States||All fishery resources|
|South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management organization (SPRFMO)||High seas of the Pacific Ocean||All species except highly migratory species, sedentary species which are subject to national jurisdiction, anadromous and catadromous species, marine mammals/reptiles and sea birds|
|Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific (NACA)||The inland territories of member states||All commercially farmed aquatic species|
|Western and Central Pacific Fish Stocks Commission (WCPFC)||Western Central Pacific Ocean||Highly migratory fish stocks|
|Mediterranean and Black Sea||General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM)||Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea||All living marine resources|
|Indian Ocean||Bay of Bengal Programme Inter-Governmental Organization (BOBP-IGO)||EEZ of the member States and contiguous areas beyond national jurisdiction||All marine fish stocks|
|Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC)||Indian Ocean and adjacent seas north of the Antarctic Convergence||Tuna and tuna-like species|
|Regional Commission for Fisheries (RECOFI)||National waters in the region||All living marine resources|
|Southern Indian Ocean Fisheries Agreement (SIOFA)||High seas in the region||Resources of fish, molluscs, crustaceans and other sedentary species, excluding: (i) sedentary species subject to the coastal States; (ii) highly migratory species|
|Southwest Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission (SWIOFC)||Indian Ocean||All living marine resources|
|Atlantic Ocean||Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF)||Atlantic Ocean||All living marine resources|
|Ministerial Conference on Fisheries Cooperation among African States Bordering the Atlantic (COMHAFAT)||EEZ of the member States||All marine living resources|
|Regional Fisheries Commission for the Gulf of Guinea (COREP)||National waters, inland waters of member States||All marine living resources|
|Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM)||National waters, inland waters of member States||All fisheries resources|
|Joint Technical Commission of the Maritime Front (CTMFM)||EEZ of the member States||The main fishery resources are white mouth croaker, argentine hake and stripped weakfish|
|Fisheries Committee for the West Central Gulf of Guinea (FCWC)||National waters of member States||All fisheries resources|
|International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT)||Atlantic Ocean including the adjacent seas||Tuna, tuna-like species and pelagic sharks|
|Joint Norwegian–Russian Fisheries Commission (JointFish)||Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea||Cod, capelin, Greenland halibut, king crab|
|Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO)||North-West Atlantic Ocean||All marine fisheries resources, except salmon, tunas, marlins, whales and sedentary species|
|North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO)||The North Atlantic Ocean||All species of cetaceans and pinnipeds|
|North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO)||Atlantic Ocean north of 36° N, throughout the species’ migratory range||Atlantic salmon|
|North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC)||Those parts of the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and their dependent seas which lie north of 36° north latitude and between 42° west longitude and 51° east longitude (with excluding)||All resources of fish, molluscs, crustaceans and including sedentary species, excluding other international agreements, highly migratory species and anadromous stocks|
|South-East Atlantic Fisheries Organization (SEAFO)||South East Atlantic Ocean||Resources of fish, molluscs, crustaceans and other sedentary species, excluding: (i) sedentary species subject to the coastal States; (ii) highly migratory species|
|Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission (SRFC)||National waters of member States||All fisheries resources|
|Western Central Atlantic Fishery Commission (WECAFC)||Western Central Atlantic||All living marine resources|
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Zhang, L. Global Fisheries Management and Community Interest. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8586. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158586
Zhang L. Global Fisheries Management and Community Interest. Sustainability. 2021; 13(15):8586. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158586Chicago/Turabian Style
Zhang, Lei. 2021. "Global Fisheries Management and Community Interest" Sustainability 13, no. 15: 8586. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158586