Increase in the Value Added of Land Due to the Establishment of Industrial Parks
- To determine how IPs are understood in different European countries, and for what purpose they are created.
- To assess the added value these parks create and their impact on regional development.
- To analyze what political, legal and practical tools are used by EU countries, and how to apply them in Ukraine.
3. The Legal Framework of Industrial Parks Development
3.1. Industrial Parks in Lithuania
- Income tax;
- Personal income tax;
- Environmental pollution and natural resources tax;
- State social insurance;
- Compulsory health insurance contributions;
- Contributions to the general affairs of the zone established by the zone management company;
- Value-added tax, excise duty, turnover tax—by the procedure and in the cases established by legal acts regulating these taxes;
- Other taxes and fees, established by law.
3.2. Industrial Parks in Portugal
- Perform all acts and carry out all useful or necessary operations for the installation of the industrial park, namely by requiring expertise, authorizations or approvals required by law;
- Develop actions to promote and publicize the industrial park;
- Ensure, by direct administration or contract, all the works necessary for the installation of the industrial park;
- Assign or dispose, under the conditions set out by law and in the regulation of the industrial park, of installations, buildings or land to industrial establishments;
- Ensure the provision of services to industrial units, in accordance with the conditions established in the regulation of the industrial park.
3.3. Industrial Parks in Ukraine
- Belong to industrial lands;
- Be suitable for industrial use, subject to the conditions and restrictions established by the relevant urban planning documentation;
- The area of the land parcel or the total area of adjacent land plots must be not less than 15 hectares and not more than 700 hectares.
- Public authorities in relation to state-owned land;
- Local governments in relation to communal land;
- Legal or natural persons—owners of private land;
- Legal or natural persons—tenants of land in relation to state, communal and private lands.
4. Research and Evaluation of Industrial Parks
4.1. Statistical Data Analysis
4.2. Spatial Data Analysis
4.3. Economic Data Analysis
- Preferential income tax rates;
- Exemption from real estate tax;
- Exemption from land tax;
- Exemption from land lease or real estate lease tax;
- Exemption from import duties on equipment and machinery;
- Preferential utility rates.
5. Results of the Analysis
6. Discussions and Conclusions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Preferential income tax rates||Yes (only in FEZ *)||No||No|
|Exemption from real estate tax||Yes||Yes||No|
|Exemption from land tax||Yes||Yes||No|
|Exemption from land lease or property lease tax||Yes (reduction)||Yes (reduction)||No|
|Exemption from import duties on equipment and machinery||No||No||No **|
|Preferential utility rates||No||Yes||No|
|Exemption/reduction from building, installation and inspection fees||No||Yes||No|
|IP types||Industrial parks, free economic zones (prioritized for production and manufacturing), science and technology parks (prioritized for R&D)||Industrial parks, Business location areas, Science and technology parks (prioritized for R&D)||Industrial parks (prioritized for processing industry, as well as R&D activities, activities in the field of information and telecommunications according to the agreement)|
|Prevailing type of land used for the establishment of IPs||Greenfield||Greenfield||Brownfield|
|IP land share in the total country land context||~0.027%||N/A||~0.0033%|
|The average/median of the size of IPs areas||134 ha/70.5 ha||N/A||42.97 ha/30.71 ha|
|Prevailing IP land ownership||Leased state land||Leased state land||Leased of state and land communal land|
|Total number of employees||7281 (in FEZ)||N/A||86,395 (current and forecast)|
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Vabuolytė, V.; Burinskienė, M.; Sousa, S.; Petrakovska, O.; Trehub, M.; Tiboni, M. Increase in the Value Added of Land Due to the Establishment of Industrial Parks. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8541. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158541
Vabuolytė V, Burinskienė M, Sousa S, Petrakovska O, Trehub M, Tiboni M. Increase in the Value Added of Land Due to the Establishment of Industrial Parks. Sustainability. 2021; 13(15):8541. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158541Chicago/Turabian Style
Vabuolytė, Vaida, Marija Burinskienė, Sílvia Sousa, Olga Petrakovska, Mykola Trehub, and Michela Tiboni. 2021. "Increase in the Value Added of Land Due to the Establishment of Industrial Parks" Sustainability 13, no. 15: 8541. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158541