How to Foster Rural Sustainability through Farming Workforce Rejuvenation? Looking into Involuntary Newcomers’ Spatial (Im)mobilities
2. Integrative Literature Review
3. Expanding the Newcomers Definition
3.1. Voluntary Newcomers’ Profiles
3.2. Involuntary Newcomers’ Profiles
4. Barriers to Involuntary Newcomers’ Involvement in Sustainable Farming
4.1. Barriers at the Individual Level
4.2. Barriers at the Informal Support Level
4.3. Barriers at the Institutional Support Level
4.4. Barriers at the Cultural and Political Dispositions Level
5. Involuntary Newcomers Profiling: Implications for Spatial Mobility Research Agendas
Limitations of Our Conceptual Proposal
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Remainers with a background in |
|Yes||Predominantly under-24 (with the exception of spouses)||Long-term to |
|Low||Negative: no alternative to involvement in family farming|
|Remainers with no background in |
|Temporary to more permanent||Low||Negative: no alternatives to farming in rural areas; trapped in an immobility mode.|
|Uncertain||Unspecific||Long-term to |
|Low||Leaning towards negative: coming to Europe from non-EU countries; unqualified, precarious, or illegal jobs as an alternative.|
|Uncertain||Predominantly under-24||Temporary||Low||Mixed: moving within EU-member states; finding a temporary source of income which is relevant according to the life standard in the country of origin; unqualified, precarious job as an alternative.|
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Simões, F.; Unay-Gailhard, I.; Mujčinović, A.; Fernandes, B. How to Foster Rural Sustainability through Farming Workforce Rejuvenation? Looking into Involuntary Newcomers’ Spatial (Im)mobilities. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8517. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158517
Simões F, Unay-Gailhard I, Mujčinović A, Fernandes B. How to Foster Rural Sustainability through Farming Workforce Rejuvenation? Looking into Involuntary Newcomers’ Spatial (Im)mobilities. Sustainability. 2021; 13(15):8517. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158517Chicago/Turabian Style
Simões, Francisco, Ilkay Unay-Gailhard, Alen Mujčinović, and Bernardo Fernandes. 2021. "How to Foster Rural Sustainability through Farming Workforce Rejuvenation? Looking into Involuntary Newcomers’ Spatial (Im)mobilities" Sustainability 13, no. 15: 8517. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158517