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Article

Changes in Chemical Properties of Banana Pseudostem, Mushroom Media Waste, and Chicken Manure through the Co-Composting Process

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Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh
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Centre for Sustainable Farming Systems, Future Food Institute, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia
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Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka 1215, Bangladesh
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Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chunjiang An
Sustainability 2021, 13(15), 8458; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158458
Received: 5 May 2021 / Revised: 16 June 2021 / Accepted: 7 July 2021 / Published: 28 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture)
Co-composting is an effective approach to biowaste management. The co-composting potential of banana pseudostem (BPS) and mushroom media waste (MMW) with chicken manure (CM) has not been explored, let alone their suitable ratios of co-composting being determined. Meanwhile, the imbalance ratios of the feedstocks used in the process severely restrict the physicochemical properties and quality of the finished product. For this reason, six different ratios of BPS, MMW, and CM, viz. 1:1:1, 1:2:1, 1:3:1, 2:1:1, 2:2:1, and 2:3:1, respectively (T1–T6), were composted together in aerobic conditions to identify the suitable ratio by evaluating the changes in the physicochemical properties in the composting process. According to the ratio of treatments, the feedstocks were mixed on fresh weight basis. The turning process of co-composting piles was repeated at seven-day intervals to maintain the uniform aeration throughout the composting period. The piles having BPS, MMW, and CM at ratios of 1:2:1, 1:3:1, and 2:3:1, respectively, demonstrated a longer thermophilic phase, indicating more complete decomposition and earlier maturity compared to piles with higher amount of BPS. Of the ratios, BPS:MMW:CM at 1:2:1 ratio (T2) resulted in the highest total nitrogen (1.53%), lowest C:N ratio (12.4), organic matter loss (54.5%), and increased CEC (41.3 cmol/kg). The highest germination index (129%) was also recorded in the T2 compost, indicating that it was toxic-free and safe for seed germination. The nutrient-rich compost with high alkaline pH (≥10) can effectively ameliorate soils of an acidic nature, for example, the acidity of Ultisols and Oxisols. View Full-Text
Keywords: banana pseudostem; mushroom media waste; chicken manure; chemical properties; co-compost banana pseudostem; mushroom media waste; chicken manure; chemical properties; co-compost
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MDPI and ACS Style

Islam, M.S.; Kasim, S.; Alam, K.M.; Amin, A.M.; Geok Hun, T.; Haque, M.A. Changes in Chemical Properties of Banana Pseudostem, Mushroom Media Waste, and Chicken Manure through the Co-Composting Process. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8458. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158458

AMA Style

Islam MS, Kasim S, Alam KM, Amin AM, Geok Hun T, Haque MA. Changes in Chemical Properties of Banana Pseudostem, Mushroom Media Waste, and Chicken Manure through the Co-Composting Process. Sustainability. 2021; 13(15):8458. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158458

Chicago/Turabian Style

Islam, Mahammad Shariful, Susilawati Kasim, Khairul Md. Alam, Adibah Mohd Amin, Tan Geok Hun, and Mohammad Amdadul Haque. 2021. "Changes in Chemical Properties of Banana Pseudostem, Mushroom Media Waste, and Chicken Manure through the Co-Composting Process" Sustainability 13, no. 15: 8458. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158458

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