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The Relationship between Physical Education Teachers’ Perceptions of Principals’ Transformational Leadership and Creative Teaching Behavior at Junior and Senior High Schools: A Cross-Level Moderating Effect on Innovative School Climates

1
Department of Physical Education, Health & Recreation, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 62103, Taiwan
2
Department of Leisure Management, Taiwan Shoufu University, Tainan 72153, Taiwan
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Department of Recreation and Leisure Industry Management, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan 404401, Taiwan
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Physical Education and Arts School, Chengyi University College, Jimei University, Xiamen 361023, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jordi Colomer Feliu
Sustainability 2021, 13(15), 8184; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158184
Received: 2 July 2021 / Revised: 16 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Education and Approaches)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a principal’s transformational leadership and creative teaching behavior of physical education teachers at junior and senior high schools in Taiwan (at the individual level) and the cross-level effect on creative teaching behaviors of physical education teachers in an innovative school climate (at the school level) and the moderator effect of an innovative school climate on the relationship between a principal’s transformational leadership and creative teaching behaviors of physical education teachers. A total of 800 questionnaires were distributed to physical education teachers at 59 junior and senior high schools and 477 valid surveys were collected for data analysis. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found that at the individual level, a principal’s transformational leadership has a positive impact on creative teaching behaviors of physical education teachers, and at the school level, an innovative school climate has a positive impact on creative teaching behaviors (at the person level) of physical education teachers. An innovative school climate at the school level has no moderating effects on the relationship between a principal’s transformational leadership and creative teaching behaviors of physical education teachers. This study provides implications and applications for cross-level studies, and builds the foundation for future multilevel research. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical education teachers; transformational leadership; creative teaching; hierarchical linear modeling physical education teachers; transformational leadership; creative teaching; hierarchical linear modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, C.-M.; Hsieh, H.-H.; Chou, Y.-H.; Huang, H.-C. The Relationship between Physical Education Teachers’ Perceptions of Principals’ Transformational Leadership and Creative Teaching Behavior at Junior and Senior High Schools: A Cross-Level Moderating Effect on Innovative School Climates. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8184. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158184

AMA Style

Chang C-M, Hsieh H-H, Chou Y-H, Huang H-C. The Relationship between Physical Education Teachers’ Perceptions of Principals’ Transformational Leadership and Creative Teaching Behavior at Junior and Senior High Schools: A Cross-Level Moderating Effect on Innovative School Climates. Sustainability. 2021; 13(15):8184. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158184

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, Chia-Ming, Huey-Hong Hsieh, Yu-Hui Chou, and Hsiu-Chin Huang. 2021. "The Relationship between Physical Education Teachers’ Perceptions of Principals’ Transformational Leadership and Creative Teaching Behavior at Junior and Senior High Schools: A Cross-Level Moderating Effect on Innovative School Climates" Sustainability 13, no. 15: 8184. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158184

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