2.1. Deep Renovation
Deep Renovation or Deep Energy Renovation is a term for a renovation that captures the full economic energy efficiency potential of improvement works, with a main focus on the building shell, of existing buildings that leads to a very high energy performance. The renovated buildings energy reductions are 75% or more compared to the status of the existing buildings before the renovation. The primary energy consumption after renovation, which includes, inter alia, energy used for heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water and lighting after the deep renovation of an existing building is less than 60 kWh per m per year.
- Economic: Deep renovation may act as an economic stimulus across the deep renovation value chain contributing to area revitalisation, direct and indirect employment, the gross domestic product (GDP), property values, competitiveness, export growth and public finances, while reducing energy costs, exposure to price fluctuations and import costs [8,10,15,16,17];
- Societal: Deep renovation may help citizens participate in a more resilient, greener and digitalised society and function more fully in society by reducing fuel poverty, improving health and contributing to a higher quality of life through increased personal well-being, comfort and productivity [8,15,16,17];
- Environmental sustainability: Deep renovation may contribute to mitigating adverse environmental impacts and building a resilient habitat for existing and future residents through higher energy performance, lower demolition and waste production, lower GHG emissions and lower air and noise pollution [15,16,17,18];
- Energy system: Deep renovation may contribute to greater energy security by reducing reliance on energy imports, avoiding investment in new energy generation capacity and reducing peak loads .
- Opportunistic: Deep renovation may differentiate a building and may make it a more attractive place to live, work or visit, when compared to other buildings ;
- Accessibility: Deep renovation may contribute to improved accessibility by accommodating the most vulnerable in society including those with disabilities and elderly people, and improving social integration .
- Quality: Deep renovation may contribute to (i) improved building quality through improvements to building physics, aesthetics and architectural integration, useful building areas, safety and ease-of-use and control by users [17,19] and (ii) increased range, quality and efficiency of service delivery including public, community and commercial services through improved pre- and post-renovation human-centric smart home monitoring [16,19,20,21].
2.2. Barriers to Deep Renovation
2.2.1. Human Barriers to Deep Renovation Adoption and Use
2.2.2. Technological Barriers to Deep Renovation Adoption and Use
2.2.3. Organisational Barriers to Deep Renovation Adoption and Use
2.2.4. External Environment Barriers to Deep Renovation Adoption and Use
2.3. Towards Integrated Design and Delivery Solutions for Deep Renovation
3. Design Principles
3.1. Full-Lifecycle (P1)
3.2. Multiple Stakeholder (P2)
3.3. Modular (P3)
3.4. Open Collaboration (P4)
3.5. Algorithmic (P5)
3.6. Scalable (P6)
3.7. Secure (P7)
4. The RINNO Open Renovation Platform
- The Renovation Repository is an open standards-based repository of building data including products, materials, services, processes, elements, discrete and combinatory renovation measures and other related data that can better inform full-cycle renovation decision0making;
- The Planning & Design Assistant is a component that helps to make proper and justified decisions based on optimum renovation solutions and inform the planning and design of a given building’s renovation. It will leverage performance simulations and a detailed assessment based on relevant key performance indicators (KPIs);
- The Retrofitting Manager is a component that supports the execution, analysis, monitoring and management of the renovation process. It will be based on and informed by best practice construction strategies, process industrialisation and optimisation techniques including off-site construction and on-site automation;
- The Building Lifecycle Renovation Manager extends beyond the initial renovation process through to the full-lifecycle by supporting users during the renovation process and beyond by monitoring various aspects of building operation and performance including occupant comfort. This component will be sufficiently intelligent to accommodate updated information models, updated technologies, standards and KPIs over time, to identify any potential deviations in the design and actual building performance and support present and actuate revised optimal strategies to maximise energy efficiency, if supported by the installed equipment;
- The Renovation Workflow & Transactions Manager is a module that acts as an enabling workflow for the entire renovation value chain and organises the data exchange among the various components, providing verification libraries for the automated quality assurance of processes and ensuring the transparency of quality assurance, certifications, transaction contracts and overall data provenance.
- User Administration & Support are mechanisms to add, manage, support and terminate subscriptions, accounts, users and roles, as well as to perform service-specific maintenance and administration tasks;
- The Social Collaboration Platform provides mechanisms and incentives (including gamified elements) to support information and knowledge exchange among stakeholders including results, best practices, case studies, etc.;
- The Training Manager provides electronic productivity support systems to facilitate asynchronous and synchronous learning including on-the-job in-field training using AR/VR, as well as conventional e-learning;
- The Finance Manager provides mechanisms for sourcing and managing funding for deep renovation projects including support for crowdfunding and smart contract-enabled contract execution;
- The RINNO Marketplace will leverage the Renovation Repository to bring suppliers and customers of renovation-related products and services together. Aggregation is a core business value of the Renovation Repository and RINNO Marketplace. Stakeholders can search for suitable renovation products and services by either browsing through standard categories suggested by the Renovation Repository and the RINNO Marketplace or search through product and service descriptions, which accompany every solution listed in the Renovation Repository.
5. The RINNO Stepwise Renovation Framework
6. Pilot Sites
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|4M||Mapping, modelling, making and monitoring|
|API||Application programming interface|
|AWS||Amazon Web Services|
|BACS||Building automation and control system|
|BEMS||Building energy management system|
|BIM||Building information modelling|
|CIB||International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction|
|CSP||Cloud service provider|
|GDP||Gross domestic product|
|HVAC||Heating, ventilation and air conditioning|
|ICT||Information and communications technology|
|IoT||Internet of Things|
|ISV||Independent software vendor|
|IDDS||Integrated design and delivery solution|
|IEEE||Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers|
|ISO||International Organization for Standardization|
|KPI||Key performance indicator|
|NZEB||Nearly zero energy building|
|QoE||Quality of experience|
|QoS||Quality of service|
|RES||Renewable energy source|
|SDG||Sustainable Development Goal|
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|Energy efficiency||Fabric measures, windows, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) plant,|
air infiltration, lighting and appliances.
|Renewable energy||Solar hot water, solar photovoltaic (PV), passive solar, shading, wind, heat pumps and|
biomass and biogas.
|Community energy||Cogeneration and district heating systems.|
|Payback period||<4 years|
|Improved energy performance||>65%|
|Total cost reduction in comparison with typical renovation||>30%|
|Total time reduction in comparison with typical renovation||>20%|
|Durability guarantee||>25 years|
|Reduction in embodied energy||>20%|
|Utilisation of bio-based materials||>45%|
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