University Teaching Planning in Times of COVID-19: Analysis of the Catalan Context and Proposal for a Future Model from ESIC Business and Marketing School Experience
- From the face-to-face classroom to the virtual university classroom in the context of a pandemic.
- From the lecture model, in which communication flows vertically (from top to bottom) to another model of multiple interaction with different directions in educational interaction.
- New horizontal communications through multiple technological channels.
- New interactions technologically mediated by ICT that require a modification of the content being taught, the form of message transmission and new assessment strategies.
- New models of participation in the classroom.
2. Theoretical Framework
- Phase 1. Collection of the regulations under study and establishment of categories.
- Phase 2. Comparison of COVID-19 regulations and their red application black on the university. In this stage of the study, the following laws and measures are compared: RD 463/2020; Ministry of Universities Regulations of 8 April and 10 June; CRUE Regulations of 16 April.
- Phase 3. Analysis of the Sectoral Plan for Universities in Catalonia. This stage of the study focuses on the evolution of the different models applied in Catalonia, as well as their description.
4.1. Comparison of COVID-19 Regulations and Their Effect on Universities
- The first phase is determined by RD 463/2020 of 14 March, which declares a state of alarm for the management of the health crisis situation caused by COVID-19.
- The second phase begins on 18 June, when Catalonia recovered its competences and starts to draw up the Sectorial Plan for the University of Catalonia.
4.1.1. Comparison of COVID-19 Regulations: First Stage and the Consequences of RD 463/2020
- Face-to-face educational activity is suspended in all centres and stages, cycles, grades, courses and levels of education referred to in Article 3 of Organic Law 2/2006, of 3 May on Education, including university education, as well as any other educational or training activities provided in other public or private centres.
- During the period of suspension, educational activities shall be maintained through distance and online modalities, whenever possible.
- Introduction and context: the situation experienced after the first month of the pandemic and the changes experienced in Spanish universities in global terms are analysed.
- General aspects: general and regulatory aspects, the different methodologies envisaged and the applicable technology. General issues of security and portability of information and availability of IT systems throughout the process are also covered.
- Design of non-face-to-face assessment procedures: the summary of this thematic block is shown in Table 3.
4.1.2. Towards a Blended Model. Recommendations for the Academic Year 2020–2021 at National Level
- Systems to ensure authorship.
- In the same way, each university should adapt this scenario to its own reality on the basis of the following formula:
4.2. Comparison of Regulations COVID-19: Sectoral Plan for Universities in Catalonia
- Hybrid model: from the beginning of the course 20–21 until 30 October. In this first phase, teaching was organised on the basis of hybrid model criteria such as 50% of students attending in person and the remaining 50% attending online synchronously via video-call systems (Zoom or others). In this way, once every two weeks, 100% of the students attend the centre to carry out a practical activity, consisting of presentations and exams. This model was also reintroduced after the reduction of SARS-CoV-2 cases in Catalonia as of 8 February.
- Online synchronous model: from 1 to 30 November, as a reaction to the increase in the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections, the Catalan government decided to place the entire population in municipal perimeter confinement throughout Catalonia. From this moment on, classes become 100% synchronous.
- Synchronous and blended model: from 7 December 2020 until the end of the first semester, the Generalitat allows students to attend the centre from time to time to carry out practical activities. In this case, the synchronous teaching model is maintained while, at the same time, the different groups attend the centre on a scheduled basis to carry out certain practical activities.
4.3. Transformative Learning by ESIC
- Student Centered Learning.
- Realistic and possible.
- Simple in its approach
- Rapid in its implementation.
- Innovative for the future.
- Reliable: security and confidence with regards to families.
- Teaching guarantee: for the teaching community.
- Differentiating: for the market.
- In the first stage, remote classes (given the confinement) were taught from the teachers’ private homes. Therefore, in this first stage, software such as Zoom was provided for remote classes. At the same time, the use of Teams was extended and standardised at all levels.
- In the second stage, work was done to incorporate hardware (touch screens, microphones, monitors) in the classrooms for training in a hybrid format, once the confinement was over.
- The level of student attendance remained above 80%.
- The level of student satisfaction as reflected in tutorials and delegate input was noticeably high and there was recognition of the effort and rapid adaptation of the university to remote teaching.
- The programmes for all subjects were completed in accordance with the Teaching Guides and the objectives set were achieved.
- Cyclical model: On the one hand, the group is divided into two halves, two groups per class and on the other hand, there are 3 weeks per cycle. In each week something different happens for the pupil. Finally, the classroom is taken as the synchronous physical place of reference where “everything happens” and Canvas as the asynchronous digital place where preparations, information, knowledge encounter and learning management take place.
- Compulsory attendance: It is obligatory, as in the current model. Attendance register is taken as normal. To those in class, in class, and to those at home, at home. Camera ON compulsory.
- Dynamic programming: The beginning of the classes in this model is the beginning of the timer for learning and it is our obligation to lead the times and reaffirm this programming with the students. The scheduling of activities is the basis for guiding the learner through their transformation. It is also the way to hold the learner accountable. Student responsibility for their schedule of activities is essential to their academic experience. Our RIGOUR in the completion of scheduled activities is also the way in which the learner verifies his or her level of achievement or failure. A student who understands his/her errors is a student who has learned.
- Classroom everywhere: To the extent that we assume that there are more spaces than the classroom for teaching, and we will be taking advantage of the model more. We leave the comfort zone of the classroom and understand that learning also happens, or can happen, in Canvas.
- Self-consumption of knowledge: The teaching resources are at the student’s disposal and the quantity or quality of their use will depend on the student. Readings, links, videos, tasks, mini-cases, collaborative content generation. All the tasks, activities and materials we provide must be consumed by the student for their learning process.
- Assessment and feedback: The model requires a significant role for assessment and feedback on learning. The weight of individual work must increase, but participation and group work must, in turn, continue to be the basis of the student’s transformation.
- Traditional teaching: The model is based on respect for the figure of the teacher.
- The tech equipment of the classroom. Hardware and software. As has been pointed out in the previous points, technology is a fundamental part of today’s teaching.
- Innovative teaching resources.
4.4. Teaching Project Proposal
- The PD is the result of a process of reflection on teaching activity.
- The PD plans the teaching activity and cannot have a closed or definitive character; it must be reviewed and updated with a view to optimising its future application.
- The PD should contain a contextualisation of the work scenario (institution, student body, resources, teaching culture of the institution, levels of transversal coordination, etc.).
- The PD should contain a reasoned statement of the author’s teaching concept (university philosophy, educational values, attitudes, self-evaluation, teaching innovation).
- The PD must be useful to its author, to his/her teaching work1.
- Predictive systems for final assessment;
- Increasing digital competences.
- Improving educational innovation practice.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|CRUE||Conference of Rectors of Spanish Universities|
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|Law/Regulation||Area||Date||Type of Teaching||Type of Evaluation||Allows for Classroom Practice|
|RD 463/2020||National||14 March||Online||Online||No|
|Ministry of Universities||National||8 April||Adapted attendance||Online||No|
|Ministry of Universities||National||10 June||Adapted attendance||No|
|Sectorial Plan for Universities Catalonia||National||Hybrid||Face-to-Face||Yes|
|Typology||Technology||Recommendations for Evaluation||Systems to Ensure Authorship|
|Moodle Classroom||Modify the typology of questions.||Online proctored exams|
|Questionnaire and short questions||Test Online||Conduct exams with randomised questions.||Supervision live online|
|EvalBox TestWe||Select an appropriate test duration.||Without supervision|
|JITSI||Identify students by means of their student card.||Ensure that in the test all files on the student’s computer are closed using the “screen sharing” system.|
|Oral exam and presentations||Whereby||The tool must be validated in terms of IT security and must have an audit to ensure this.||Adjust the perspective of your camera to be able to see the student’s face, the desk and the media he/she is handling during the conversation/test resolution.|
|Video Etherpad||If the examination is recorded, the videos must be stored for as long as necessary.|
|WebEx meetings (CISCO)|
|Work, project and portfolio development||Include among the objectives of the work reflections that make it difficult to copy from a repository.||Turnitin|
|Combine the submission of the paper with an oral presentation or interview to demonstrate mastery of the subject matter.||Urkund|
|Common||Controlling arbitrary or illicit actions||Common: Teacher is responsible for student identification||Depends on each exam|
|1. Oral exam||Test procedure||Image and voice||Recording|
|2. Open written exam||Anti-plagiarism||Student data||Data analysis|
|3. Objective exam.||Anti-plagiarism||Student data||Data analysis|
|4. One minute paper||Anti-plagiarism||Student data||Data analysis|
|5. Academic work||Anti-plagiarism||Student data||Data analysis|
|6. Concept maps||Anti-plagiarism||Student data||Data analysis|
|7. Reflective journal||Anti-plagiarism||Student data||Data analysis|
|8. Portfolio||Anti-plagiarism||Image and voice||Recording|
|Details of participants|
|9. Observation||Registration of the test||Image and voice||Recording|
|10. Projects||Anti-plagiarism||Image and voice||Recording|
|Details of participants|
|11. Problems/Cases||Anti-plagiarism||Student data||Data analysis|
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Bustos Díaz, J.; Mellen Vinagre, T.; Nicolas-Sans, R. University Teaching Planning in Times of COVID-19: Analysis of the Catalan Context and Proposal for a Future Model from ESIC Business and Marketing School Experience. Sustainability 2021, 13, 5936. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115936
Bustos Díaz J, Mellen Vinagre T, Nicolas-Sans R. University Teaching Planning in Times of COVID-19: Analysis of the Catalan Context and Proposal for a Future Model from ESIC Business and Marketing School Experience. Sustainability. 2021; 13(11):5936. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115936Chicago/Turabian Style
Bustos Díaz, Javier, Teodor Mellen Vinagre, and Ruben Nicolas-Sans. 2021. "University Teaching Planning in Times of COVID-19: Analysis of the Catalan Context and Proposal for a Future Model from ESIC Business and Marketing School Experience" Sustainability 13, no. 11: 5936. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115936