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Article

The Use of Cluster Analysis to Evaluate the Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Daily Water Demand Patterns

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MWiK—The Water Supply and Sewage Company of Bydgoszcz Sp. z o.o., 85-817 Bydgoszcz, Poland
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Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
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Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
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RETENCJAPL Sp. z o.o., 80-868 Gdansk, Poland
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Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, 50-377 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Danuta Szumińska, Aleksandra Jezierska-Thöle and Marta Gwiaździska-Goraj
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 5772; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115772
Received: 15 April 2021 / Revised: 13 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
Proper determination of unitary water demand and diurnal distribution of water consumption (water consumption histogram) provides the basis for designing, dimensioning, and all analyses of water supply networks. It is important in the case of mathematical modelling of flows in the water supply network, particularly during the determination of nodal water demands in the context of Extended Period Simulation (EPS). Considering the above, the analysis of hourly water consumption in selected apartment buildings was performed to verify the justification of the application of grouping by means of k-means clustering. The article presents a detailed description of the adopted methodology, as well as the obtained results in the form of synthetic distributions of hourly water consumption, and the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on their change. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; water consumption; urban environment; residential water demand pattern; cluster analysis; statistics COVID-19; water consumption; urban environment; residential water demand pattern; cluster analysis; statistics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dzimińska, P.; Drzewiecki, S.; Ruman, M.; Kosek, K.; Mikołajewski, K.; Licznar, P. The Use of Cluster Analysis to Evaluate the Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Daily Water Demand Patterns. Sustainability 2021, 13, 5772. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115772

AMA Style

Dzimińska P, Drzewiecki S, Ruman M, Kosek K, Mikołajewski K, Licznar P. The Use of Cluster Analysis to Evaluate the Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Daily Water Demand Patterns. Sustainability. 2021; 13(11):5772. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115772

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dzimińska, Paulina, Stanisław Drzewiecki, Marek Ruman, Klaudia Kosek, Karol Mikołajewski, and Paweł Licznar. 2021. "The Use of Cluster Analysis to Evaluate the Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Daily Water Demand Patterns" Sustainability 13, no. 11: 5772. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115772

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