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Article

Bioenergy for a Cleaner Future: A Case Study of Sustainable Biogas Supply Chain in the Malaysian Energy Sector

1
Department of Earth Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Centre for Tropical Climate Change System, Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
3
The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, Centre of Excellence on Energy Technology and Environment, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
4
Center of Excellence on Energy Technology and Environment, PERDO, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
5
School of Technology Management and Logistics, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok 06010, Kedah, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3213; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083213
Received: 18 March 2020 / Revised: 5 April 2020 / Accepted: 6 April 2020 / Published: 16 April 2020
A life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental sustainability evaluation conceptual framework of biogas production has been proposed to improve the sustainability of biogas supply chains. The conceptual framework developed in this study can be used as a guideline for the related stakeholders and decision makers to improve the quality and enhance the sustainability of biogas production in Malaysia as well as promoting biogas as a clean, reliable and secure energy. A case study on an LCA analysis of a zero waste discharge treatment process has been conducted. In the zero discharge treatment system, biogas can be produced with a maximum water recycle and reuse. It was indicated that the biogas production and zero discharge treatment of a palm oil mill effluent were environmentally sustainable as the system utilized organic waste to produce bioenergy and achieved zero discharge. However, there were other aspects that should be taken into consideration, particularly regarding the sources of electricity and upstream activity, to ensure the sustainability of the system holistically. View Full-Text
Keywords: clean technology; renewable energy; life cycle assessment; zero discharge; waste treatment; sustainability clean technology; renewable energy; life cycle assessment; zero discharge; waste treatment; sustainability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aziz, N.I.H.A.; Hanafiah, M.M.; Gheewala, S.H.; Ismail, H. Bioenergy for a Cleaner Future: A Case Study of Sustainable Biogas Supply Chain in the Malaysian Energy Sector. Sustainability 2020, 12, 3213. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083213

AMA Style

Aziz NIHA, Hanafiah MM, Gheewala SH, Ismail H. Bioenergy for a Cleaner Future: A Case Study of Sustainable Biogas Supply Chain in the Malaysian Energy Sector. Sustainability. 2020; 12(8):3213. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083213

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aziz, Nur Izzah Hamna A., Marlia M. Hanafiah, Shabbir H. Gheewala, and Haikal Ismail. 2020. "Bioenergy for a Cleaner Future: A Case Study of Sustainable Biogas Supply Chain in the Malaysian Energy Sector" Sustainability 12, no. 8: 3213. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083213

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